United States Numbered Highways

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United States Numbered Highway System
US shield evolution.svg

Map of the present U.S. Highway network
System information
Formed: November 11, 19261
Length: 157,724 mia (253,832 km)
Highway names
US Routes: U.S. Highway nn (US nn)
U.S. Route nn (US nn)
System links
  • United States Numbered Highways

The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated network of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. As these highways were coordinated among the states, they are sometimes called Federal Highways, but they have always been maintained by state or local governments since their initial designation in 1926.

The route numbers and locations are coordinated by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).3 The only federal involvement in AASHTO is a nonvoting seat for the United States Department of Transportation. Generally, north-to-south highways are odd-numbered, with lowest numbers in the east and highest in the west. Similarly, west-to-east highways are typically even-numbered, with the lowest numbers in the north and highest in the south. Major north–south routes have numbers ending in "1" while major east–west routes have numbers ending in "0". Three-digit numbered highways are spur routes of parent highways but are not necessarily connected to their parents. Divided routes exist to provide two alignments to one route, even though many have been eliminated, while special routes, usually posted with a banner, can provide various routes, such as an alternate or bypass route, for a U.S. Highway.

Before the U.S. Routes were designated, auto trails were the main means of marking roads through the United States. In 1925, the Joint Board on Interstate Highways, recommended by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), worked to form a national numbering system. After several meetings, a final report was approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in November 1925. Complaints then came from across the country about the assignment of routes, so several modifications were made and the U.S. Highway System was approved in November 1926. As a result of compromises made to get the U.S. Highway System approved, many routes divided to serve different towns. In subsequent years, AASHTO called for splits in U.S. Routes to be eliminated.

Expansion of the system continued until 1956 when the Interstate Highway System was formed and many U.S. Routes were replaced by Interstate Highways for through traffic. Despite the Interstate system, U.S. Highways still form many important regional connections and new routes are still being added.

System details

US 50.svg  US 50 (CA).svg
The U.S. Route shield is printed on a square blank with a black background. California is the only state to use an older cut-out design.

In general, U.S. Routes do not have a minimum design standard, unlike the later Interstate Highways, and are not usually built to freeway standards, although some stretches of U.S. Routes do meet those standards. Many are the main streets of the cities and towns through which they run. New additions to the system, however, must "substantially meet the current AASHTO design standards".3 As of 1989, the United States Numbered Highways system has a total length of 157,724 miles (253,832 km).2

Except for toll bridges and tunnels, very few U.S. Routes are toll roads. AASHTO policy says that a toll road may only be included as a special route, and that "a toll-free routing between the same termini shall continue to be retained and marked as a part of the U.S. Numbered System."3 Although U.S. Route 3 (US 3) meets this obligation, as in New Hampshire, it does not actually follow tolled portions of the Everett Turnpike. However, four toll roads in the system follow this:4

Numbering

The two-digit U.S. Routes follow a simple grid, in which odd-numbered routes run generally north to south and even-numbered routes run generally east to west. (US 101 is considered a two-digit route, its "first digit" being 10.) The numbering pattern for U.S. Routes is the reverse of that for the Interstate Highway numbers—U.S. Routes proceed from low even numbers in the north to high even numbers in the south, and from low odd numbers in the east to high odd numbers in the west. Numbers ending in 0 or 1 (and US 25), and to a lesser extent in 5, were considered main routes in the early numbering, but extensions and truncations have made this distinction largely meaningless. For example, US 6 was until 1964 the longest route (that distinction now belongs to US 20). The Interstate Highway System's numbering grid, which has numbers increasing from west-to-east and south-to-north, is intentionally opposite from the U.S. grid, to keep identically numbered routes apart and to keep them from being confused with one another.6

Three-digit numbers are assigned to spurs of two-digit routes. US 201, for example, splits from US 1 at Brunswick, Maine, and runs north to Canada.7 Not all spurs travel in the same direction as their "parents"; some are only connected to their "parents" by other spurs, or not at all, instead only traveling near their "parents". As originally assigned, the first digit of the spurs increased from north to south and east to west along the "parent"; for example, US 60 junctioned, from east to west, US 160 in Missouri, US 260 in Oklahoma, US 360 in Texas, and US 460 and US 560 in New Mexico.8 As with the two-digit routes, three-digit routes have been added, removed, extended and shortened; the "parent-child" relationship is not always present. Several spurs of the decommissioned US 66 still exist, and US 191 travels from border to border, while US 91 has been largely replaced by Interstate 15 (I-15).79

Several routes approved since 1980 do not follow the numbering pattern:

  • US 400, approved in 1994, has no "parent" since there is no US 0 or US 100.7
  • US 412, approved c. 1982, is nowhere near US 12.7
  • US 425, approved in 1989, is nowhere near US 25.7

In addition, US 163, designated in 1970, is nowhere near US 63.710 The short US 57, approved c. 1970, connects to Federal Highway 57 in Mexico, and lies west of former US 81.7

While AASHTO guidelines specifically prohibit Interstate Highways and U.S. Routes from sharing a number within the same state11 (which is why there are no Interstates 50 or 60), the initial Interstate numbering approved in 1958 violated this with I-24 and US 24 in Illinois and I-40, I-80, US 40 and US 80 in California (US 40 and US 80 were removed from California in its 1964 renumbering).9 Some recent and proposed Interstates, some of them out-of-place in the grid, also violate this: I-41 and US 41 in Wisconsin (which will run concurrently),12 I-49 and US 49 in Arkansas,713 I-69 and US 69 in Texas,714 and I-74 and US 74 in North Carolina (which run concurrently).15

Some two-digit numbers have never been applied to any U.S. Route, including 39, 47, 86 and 88.

Divided and special routes

Divided routes have been around since 1926, and designate roughly-equivalent splits of routes. For instance, US 11 splits into US 11E (east) and US 11W (west) in Knoxville, Tennessee, and the routes rejoin in Bristol, Virginia. Occasionally only one of the two routes is suffixed; US 6N in Pennsylvania does not rejoin US 6 at its west end. AASHTO has been trying to eliminate these since 1934;16 its current policy is to deny approval of new ones and to eliminate existing ones "as rapidly as the State Highway Department and the Standing Committee on Highways can reach agreement with reference thereto".3

Special routes—those with a banner such as alternate or bypass—are also managed by AASHTO.3 These are sometimes designated with lettered suffixes, like A for alternate or B for business.17

Naming

The official route log, last published by AASHTO in 1989, has been named United States Numbered Highways since its initial publication in 1926. Within the route log, "U.S. Route" is used in the table of contents, while "United States Highway" appears as the heading for each route. All reports of the Special Committee on Route Numbering since 1989 use "U.S. Route", and federal laws relating to highways use "United States Route" or "U.S. Route" more often than the "Highway" variants.18 The use of U.S. Route or U.S. Highway on a local level depends on the state, with some states such as Delaware using "route" and others such as Colorado using "highway".1920

History

Early auto trails

In the early 1910s, auto trail organizations—most prominently the Lincoln Highway - began to spring up, marking and promoting routes for long-distance automobile travel. While many of these organizations worked with towns and states along the route to improve the roadways, others simply chose a route based on towns that were willing to pay dues, put up signs, and did little else.1

Planning

Wisconsin was the first state in the U.S. to number its highways, erecting signs in May 1918.1 Other states soon followed, and the New England states got together in 1922 to establish the six-state New England Interstate Routes.21

Behind the scenes, the federal aid program had begun with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, providing 50% monetary support from the federal government for improvement of major roads. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 limited the routes to 7% of each state's roads, while 3 in every 7 roads had to be "interstate in character". Identification of these main roads was completed in 1923.1

The American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), formed in 1914 to help establish roadway standards, began to plan a system of marked and numbered "interstate highways" at its 1924 meeting. AASHO recommended that the Secretary of Agriculture work with the states to designate these routes.1

Secretary Howard M. Gore appointed the Joint Board on Interstate Highways, as recommended by AASHO, on March 2, 1925. The Board was composed of 21 state highway officials and three federal Bureau of Public Roads officials. At the first meeting, on April 20 and 21, the name—U.S. Highway—was adopted. It was also decided that the system would not be limited to the federal-aid network; if the best route did not receive federal funds, it would still be included. The tentative design for the U.S. Highway shield was also adopted, based on the shield found on the Great Seal of the United States.1

Opposition soon formed from the auto trail associations, who rejected the elimination of the highway names. Six regional meetings were held to hammer out the details—May 15 for the West, May 27 for the Mississippi Valley, June 3 for the Great Lakes, June 8 for the South, June 15 for the North Atlantic, and June 15 for New England. The auto trail associations were not able to address the meetings. However, as a compromise, they talked with the Joint Board members and came up with a general agreement with their plans. The tentative system added up to 81,000 miles (130,000 km), 2.8% of the public road mileage at the time.1

US 32 Iowa 1926 shield marker
US 28 Oregon 1948 shield marker
1926 and 1948 versions of the U.S. Route shield

The second full meeting was held August 3 and 4, 1925. At that meeting, discussion was held over the appropriate density of routes. William F. Williams of Massachusetts and Frederick S. Greene of New York favored a system of only major transcontinental highways, while many states recommended a large number of roads of only regional importance. Greene in particular intended New York's system of only four major through routes as an example to the other states. Many states agreed in general with the scope of the system, but believed the Midwest to have added too many routes. The shield, with few modifications from the original sketch, was adopted at that meeting, as was the decision to number rather than name the routes. A preliminary numbering system, with eight major west–east and ten major north–south routes, was deferred to a numbering committee "without instructions".1

After working with states to get their approval, the system had expanded to 75,800 miles (122,000 km), or 2.6% of total mileage, over 50% more than the plan approved August 4. The skeleton of the numbering plan was suggested on August 27 by Edwin Warley James of the BPR, who matched parity to direction, and laid out a rough grid. Major routes from the earlier map were assigned numbers ending in 0, 1 or 5 (5 was soon relegated to less-major status), and short connections received three-digit numbers based on the main highway they spurred from. The five-man committee met September 25, and submitted the final report to the Joint Board secretary on October 26.1 The board sent the report to the Secretary of Agriculture of October 30, and he approved it November 18, 1925.8

Disagreement and refinement 1925–26

The "final" U.S. Highway plan as approved November 11, 1926

The new system was both praised and criticized by local newspapers, often depending on whether that city ended up on a major route. While the Lincoln Highway Association understood and supported the plan, partly because they were assured of getting the US 30 designation as much as possible, most other trail associations lamented their obsolescence. At their January 14–15, 1926 meeting, AASHO was flooded with complaints.1

In the Northeast, New York still wanted fewer routes, and Pennsylvania, which had been absent from the local meetings, convinced AASHO to add a dense network of routes, which had the effect of giving six routes termini along the state line. (Only US 220 still ends near the state line, and now it ends at an intersection with future I-86.) The indirect nature of US 20, passing through Yellowstone National Park, led Idaho and Oregon to request that US 30 be swapped with US 20 to the Pacific coast.1

Many local disputes centered on the choice between two roughly equal parallel routes, often competing auto trails. At their January meeting, AASHO approved the first two of many split routes (specifically US 40 between Manhattan, Kansas and Limon, Colorado and US 50 between Baldwin City, Kansas and Garden City, Kansas). In effect, each of the two routes received the same number, with a directional suffix indicating its relation to the other. These splits were initially shown in the log as—for instance—US 40 North and US 40 South, but were always posted as simply US 40N and US 40S.1

The most heated argument, however, was the issue of US 60. The Joint Board had assigned that number to the Chicago-Los Angeles route, which ran east from Los Angeles to Oklahoma City, but then angled sharply to the northeast, running more north–south than west–east in Illinois. Kentucky strongly objected to this, as it had been left off any of the major west–east routes, instead receiving the US 62 designation. This, along with the part of US 52 east of Ashland, Kentucky, was assigned the US 60 number in January 1926, while US 62 was given to the Chicago-Los Angeles route, contingent on the approval of the states along the former US 60. But Missouri and Oklahoma did object—Missouri had already printed maps, and Oklahoma had prepared signs. A compromise was proposed, in which US 60 would split at Springfield, Missouri, into US 60E and US 60N, but both sides objected. The final solution resulted in the assignment of US 66, which did not end in zero, but was still seen as a nice round number.1

With 32 states already marking their routes, the plan was approved by AASHO on November 11, 1926.1 This plan included a number of directionally split routes, several discontinuous routes (including US 6, US 19 and US 50), and some termini at state lines.22 Major numbering changes had been made in Pennsylvania by the publishing of the first route log in April 1927, in order to align the routes to the auto trails,23 and U.S. Route 15 had been extended across Virginia.24

Much of the early criticism of the U.S. Highway System focused on the choice of numbers to designate the highways, rather than names. Some saw a numbered highway system as cold and heartless compared to the more colorful names of the auto trail systems. The New York Times wrote, "The traveler may shed tears as he drives the Lincoln Highway or dream dreams as he speeds over the Jefferson Highway, but how can he get a 'kick' out of 46, 55 or 33 or 21?"6 The writer Ernest McGaffey was quoted as saying, "Logarithms will take the place of legends, and 'hokum' for history."1

Expansion and adjustment: 1926–56

This sign, photographed in 1941 on US 99 between Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon, illustrates one rationale for a federal highway system: national defense.

When the U.S. numbered system was started in 1925, a few optional routings were established which were designated with a suffixed letter after the number indicating "north", "south", "east", or "west". While there are still a few roads in the system numbered in this manner, it is believed that they should be eliminated wherever possible, by the absorption of one of the optional routes into another route.

In 1934, AASHO attempted to eliminate many of the split routes by removing them from the log, and designating one of each pair as a three-digit or alternate route, or in one case US 37. AASHO described its renumbering concept in the October 1934 issue of American Highways:16 Wherever an alternate route is not suitable for its own unique two-digit designation, standard procedure assigns the unqualified number to the older or shorter route, while the other route uses the same number marked by a standard strip above its shield carrying the word "Alternate". Most states adhere to this approach. However, some maintain legacy routes which violate the usual rules in various ways. Examples can be found in California, Mississippi, Nebraska, Oregon, and Tennessee. In 1952, AASHO permanently recognized the splits in US 11, US 19, US 25, US 31, US 45, US 49, US 73, and US 99.1625

General expansion and the occasional elimination continued to occur through the years. One of the more interesting cases was the proposed extension of US 97 to Alaska along the Alaska Highway, canceled because the Canadian Yukon Territory refused to renumber its section as Yukon Highway 97.26

For the most part, the U.S. Routes remained the primary method of inter-city travel; the main exceptions were toll roads such as the Pennsylvania Turnpike and parkway routes such as the Merritt Parkway. Many of the first high-speed roads were U.S. Highways: the Gulf Freeway carried US 75,27 the Pasadena Freeway carried US 66,28 and the Pulaski Skyway carried US 1 and US 9.29

Interstate era 1956–present

1961 version of the U.S. Route shield

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 appropriated funding for the Interstate Highway System, a vast network of freeways across the country. By 1957, AASHO had decided to assign a new grid—numbered in the opposite directions as the U.S. Highway grid—to the new routes. Though the Interstate numbers were to supplement, rather than replace, the U.S. Route numbers, in many cases (especially in the west) they were routed along the new Interstates.9 Major decommissioning began with California's highway renumbering in 1964, and the 1985 removal of US 66 is often seen as the end of an era.30 A few major connections not served by Interstate Highways include US 6 from Hartford, Connecticut, to Providence, Rhode Island; US 101 from Los Angeles to San Francisco; and US 93 from Phoenix to Las Vegas. The three state capitals in the contiguous U.S. that are served only by U.S. Routes are Dover, Delaware; Jefferson City, Missouri; and Pierre, South Dakota.

The last major U.S. Route to be constructed was US 12 on the Idaho side of Lolo Pass, completed in 1962.citation needed The last remaining segment of unpaved U.S. Route was US 183 between the villages of Rose and Taylor, Nebraska, which was paved c. 1967.31

In 1995 the National Highway System was defined which included both the Interstate Highway System and other roads, which are important to the nation's economy, defense, and mobility.

AASHTO is in the process of eliminating all intrastate U.S. Highways less than 300 miles (480 km) in length "as rapidly as the State Highway Department and the Standing Committee on Highways of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials can reach agreement with reference thereto". New additions to the system must serve more than one state and "substantially meet the current AASHTO design standards".3

The 1925 routes

The original major transcontinental routes in 1925, along with the auto trails which they roughly replaced, were as follows:8

Note that US 10, US 60, and US 90 only ran about two-thirds of the way across the country, while US 11 and US 60 ran significantly diagonally. The way in which US 60 violated two of the conventions would prove to be one of the major sticking points; US 60 eventually became the famous US 66 in 1926. US 101 actually continues east and then south to end at Olympia, Washington.22 The western terminus of US 2 is now at Everett, Washington.7

See also

Notes

  1. ^ As of 1989.2

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Weingroff, Richard F. (April 7, 2011). "From Names to Numbers: The Origins of the US Numbered Highway System". Highway History. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved June 10, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b AASHTO Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering (1989). United States Numbered Highways (PDF) (5th ed.). American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. p. iv. Retrieved March 16, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (January 2000). "Establishment and Development of United States Numbered Highways" (PDF). AASHTO Transportation Policy Book. AASHTO. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  4. ^ Rand McNally (2013). The Road Atlas: United States, Canada & Mexico (Map). Cartography by Rand McNally (2013 Walmart ed.). p. 32, section A9; p. 83, section D15, D19; p. 92, section J8. ISBN 0-528-00626-6.
  5. ^ "Ask the Rambler: What Is The Longest Road in the United States?". Federal Highway Administration. April 7, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b McNichol, Dan (2006). The Roads that Built America: The Incredible Story of the US Interstate System. New York: Sterling Publishing. ISBN 1-4027-3468-9. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rand McNally (2009). The Road Atlas and Travel Guide (Map). ISBN 978-0-528-94209-9.
  8. ^ a b c Secretary of Agriculture (November 18, 1925). Report of Joint Board on Interstate Highways, October 30, 1925 (Report). US Department of Agriculture.
  9. ^ a b c Esso (1966). United States Featuring The Interstate Highway System (Map). Cartography by General Drafting.
  10. ^ "Arizona DOT Right-of-Way Resolutions". Arizona Department of Transportation. Retrieved March 30, 2008. 
  11. ^ Staff (January 2000). "Establishment of a Marking System of the Routes Comprising the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways" (PDF). AASHTO Transportation Policy Book. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  12. ^ Jones, Ben (December 18, 2006). "'Interstate 41' on near horizon". The Post Crescent (Appleton, Wisconsin). 
  13. ^ "Ross (AR04) Newsletter—Interstate 49". Congressman Mike Ross. June 8, 2001. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
  14. ^ Texas Department of Transportation. "I-69/TTC (Northeast Texas to Mexico)". TxDOT. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
  15. ^ Woodard, Johnny (October 8, 2008). "I-74 four-lane to Lumberton opened" (PDF). The Laurinburg Exchange. Retrieved June 7, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b c Weingroff, Richard F. (April 7, 2011). "US 11 Rouses Point, New York, to New Orleans, Louisiana". Highway History. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  17. ^ For example, compare the following for an alternate route in Ohio:
    • Ohio Department of Transportation (2011). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in=9 mi. Cartography by Office of Technical Services, GIS/Mapping Section. Section B2–F2.
    • Google Inc. "Street View of US 20A/SR 15 near Pioneer, OH". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. //maps.google.com/?ll=41.629366,-84.553778&spn=0.000874,0.001875&t=m&z=19&layer=c&cbll=41.629366,-84.553778&panoid=BmzMseUriz3xI25OjMxnMw&cbp=12,6.79,,0,27.13. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
    • Rand McNally (2013). The Road Atlas: United States, Canada & Mexico (Map). 1 mi=12 mi. Cartography by Rand McNally (2013 Walmart ed.). p. 78, section NE2–NE6. ISBN 0-528-00626-6.
  18. ^ Google searches on thomas.loc.gov for "United States Route", "U.S. Route", "United States Highway" and "U.S. Highway"
  19. ^ Staff (2006). "2006 Traffic Count and Mileage Report" (PDF). Delaware Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 10, 2011. 
  20. ^ Staff. "Segment Descriptions for Highway 006". Colorado Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 10, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Motor Sign Uniformity". New York Times. April 16, 1922. 
  22. ^ a b Bureau of Public Roads (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Cartography by U.S. Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth298433/m1/1/zoom/. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  23. ^ Weingroff, Richard F. (April 7, 2011). "US 22: The William Penn Highway". Highway History. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  24. ^ "United States Numbered Highways". American Highways (American Association of State Highway Officials). April 1927. ISSN 0002-8746. 
  25. ^ Droz, Robert V. "Divided (Split) Routes". us-highways.com. Retrieved April 11, 2010. unreliable source
  26. ^ Droz, Robert V. "Alaska's US Highway(s)". us-highways.com. Retrieved April 11, 2010. unreliable source
  27. ^ Feldstein, Dan (June 27, 1999). "A rare quiet interlude for area's first freeway Next major upgrade: Causeway in 2002". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved June 9, 2009. 
  28. ^ Correspondence between the Division of Highways and American Association of State Highway Officials, transcribed at "State Route 66". California Highways. Retrieved June 10, 2011. unreliable source
  29. ^ Rand McNally (1946). Road Atlas (Map). p. 42, New York and Vicinity inset. http://www.broermapsonline.org/members/NorthAmerica/UnitedStates/Midatlantic/NewYork/NewYorkCity/randmcnally_ra_1946_040.html.
  30. ^ "Route Renumbering" (PDF). California Highways and Public Works 38 (2): 11–13. March–April 1964. ISSN 0008-1159. Retrieved June 10, 2011. 
  31. ^ Droz, Robert V. "North–South routes". us-highways.com. Retrieved April 11, 2010. unreliable source

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