Unitary perfect number
A unitary perfect number is an integer which is the sum of its positive proper unitary divisors, not including the number itself. (A divisor d of a number n is a unitary divisor if d and n/d share no common factors.) Some perfect numbers are not unitary perfect numbers, and some unitary perfect numbers are not regular perfect numbers.
Thus, 60 is a unitary perfect number, because its unitary divisors, 1, 3, 4, 5, 12, 15 and 20 are its proper unitary divisors, and 1 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 12 + 15 + 20 = 60. The first few unitary perfect numbers are:
There are no odd unitary perfect numbers. This follows since one has 2d*(n) dividing the sum of the unitary divisors of an odd number (where d*(n) is the number of distinct prime divisors of n). One gets this because the sum of all the unitary divisors is a multiplicative function and one has the sum of the unitary divisors of a power of a prime pa is pa + 1 which is even for all odd primes p. Therefore, an odd unitary perfect number must have only one distinct prime factor, and it is not hard to show that a power of prime cannot be a unitary perfect number, since there are not enough divisors. It's not known whether or not there are infinitely many unitary perfect numbers.
- Richard K. Guy (2004). Unsolved Problems in Number Theory. Springer-Verlag. pp. 84–86. ISBN 0-387-20860-7. Section B3.
- Paulo Ribenboim (2000). My Numbers, My Friends: Popular Lectures on Number Theory. Springer-Verlag. p. 352. ISBN 0-387-98911-0.
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