United States Senate elections, 1790

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United States Senate elections, 1790
United States
1788 ←
Chosen by state legislatures until 1912
→ 1792

9 of the 26 seats in the United States Senate
14 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Last election 19 7
Seats won 17 8
Seat change -2 +1

Majority Party before election

Pro-Administration Party (United States)

Elected Majority Party

Pro-Administration Party (United States)

The United States Senate elections of 1790 was the second election of Senators in the United States. In this election, terms were up for the nine Senators in Class 1. As of this election, formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of Senators who supported President George Washington's administration were known as the Pro-Administration Party, and the Senators against him as the Anti-Administration Party.

As this election was prior to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.1

End of the 1st Congress

A A A
P P P P P A A A A A
P
P P P P P P P P P
P P P

9 of the 26 Senators were up for re-election.

Results of the election

A A A
P P P P A V A A A A
P
P P P P P P P P P
P P P

Vacant: Anti-Administration incumbent William Maclay of Pennsylvania was not re-elected. The seat remained vacant for three years, until late in 1793.2

Beginning of the 2nd Congress

A A A
P P P V A A A A A A
P
P P P P P P P P P
P P P

The grouping of three Senators (who were not up for election this year) changed parties, leading to a net gain of one seat from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration:

  • Richard Bassett (Delaware class 2) changed from Anti-Administration to Pro-Administration.
  • Benjamin Hawkins (North Carolina class 3) changed from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration.
  • Pierce Butler (South Carolina class 2) changed from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration.
Key:
A = Anti-Administration
P = Pro-Administration
V = Vacant
Majority
divider

Complete list of races

All were general elections to the Class 1 seats, except where noted.

1790 elections

State Incumbent Party Result Candidates
Connecticut Oliver Ellsworth Pro-Administration Re-elected Oliver Ellsworth (Pro-Administration)
Massachusetts Tristram Dalton Pro-Administration Lost re-election
Pro-Administration hold
George Cabot (Pro-Administration)
Tristram Dalton (Pro-Administration)
New Jersey Jonathan Elmer Pro-Administration [Data unknown/missing. You can help!
Pro-Administration hold
John Rutherfurd (Pro-Administration)
New Jersey
Special (Class 2)
William Paterson Pro-Administration Resigned November 13, 1790 to become Governor of New Jersey.
Winner was elected November 13, 1790 to finish the term ending March 3, 1793
Pro-Administration hold
Philemon Dickinson (Pro-Administration)
Pennsylvania William Maclay Anti-Administration The Pennsylvania General Assembly failed to elect a Senator until 1793, half-way through the term
Anti-Administration loss
Vacant
Rhode Island
General (Class 1)
Current term
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790
Winner was elected June 7, 1790 to the term ending March 3, 1791
Pro-Administration gain
Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Rhode Island
General (Class 1)
Next term
Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790
Winner was elected June 7, 1790 to the next term
Pro-Administration gain
Theodore Foster (Pro-Administration)
Rhode Island
General (Class 2)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790
Winner was elected June 7, 1790 to the term ending March 3, 1793
Pro-Administration gain
Joseph Stanton, Jr. (Pro-Administration)
Virginia
Special
John Walker Pro-Administration Interim appointee retired
Winner was elected November 9, 1790 to the term ending March 3, 1791
Anti-Administration gain
James Monroe (Anti-Administration)
Virginia
General
Interim appointee retired
Winner was elected November 9, 1790 to the next term
Anti-Administration gain
James Monroe (Anti-Administration)

1791 elections

State Incumbent Party Result Candidates
Delaware George Read Pro-Administration Re-elected in 1791 George Read (Pro-Administration)
Maryland Charles Carroll Pro-Administration Re-elected in 1791 Charles Carroll (Pro-Administration)
New York Philip Schuyler Pro-Administration Lost re-election on January 19, 1791
Anti-Administration gain
Aaron Burr (Anti-Administration)
Philip Schuyler (Pro-Administration)

See also

References

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. 
  2. ^ William Maclay at Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

External links








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