Resident Commissioner of the Philippines

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Resident Commissioner of the Philippines
Seal of the United States House of Representatives.svg
Carlos P. Romulo
Inaugural holder Benito Legarda y Tuason, Pablo Ocampo
Final holder Carlos P. Romulo
Abolished 1947

The Resident Commissioner of the Philippines was a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives sent by the Philippines from 1907 until its internationally recognized independence in 1946. It was similar to current non-voting members of Congress such as Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico and delegates from Washington, D.C., Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and other United States territories.

Like current non-voting members, Resident Commissioners could speak and otherwise participate in the business of the House, but did not have full voting rights. Two were sent until 1937 when after the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the number was changed to one.1

History

The Philippines was a United States territory from 13 August 1898 until Philippine independence was internationally recognized on 4 July 1946.

The office was first created by the Philippine Organic Act (1902) section 8 and re-authorized on its subsequent replacements -- the Jones Law of 1916 (know as the Philippine Autonomy Act) section 20, and the Tydings–McDuffie Act of 1934 (known as the Philippine Independence Act) section 7(5).

The procedures for appointment of the Resident Commissioners were ambiguous and a source of friction.2 Under the Insular Government, they were appointed by the American government-appointed Philippine Commission with agreement of the fully elected, fully Filipino Philippine Assembly. This conflict ended when the Tydings-McDuffle Act dissolved the Commission and replaced it with the Philippine Senate, the upper house of the new Philippine Commonwealth legislature.

List of Resident Commissioners

Philippine Commissioner J.M. Elizalde with future Philippine president Sergio Osmena and John W. Hausermann, (a Republican Party leader and goldmine owner in the Philippines), in 1938 or 1939, Library of Congress
Territorial era
Congress Resident Commissioner 1 Resident Commissioner 2
60th (1907–1909) Benito Legarda cph.3b13853.jpg Benito Legarda y Tuason No image.svg Pablo Ocampo
61st (1909–1911)
Manuel L. Quezon (November 1942).jpg Manuel L. Quezon
62nd (1911–1913)
63rd (1913–1915) ManuelEarnshaw.jpg Manuel Earnshaw
64th (1915–1917)
65th (1917–1919) No image.svg Jaime C. de Veyra TeodoroRYangco.jpg Teodoro R. Yangco
66th (1919–1921)
IsauroGabaldon.jpg Isauro Gabaldon
67th (1921–1923)
68th (1923–1925) Pedro Guevara 1923.jpg Pedro Guevara
69th (1925–1927)
70th (1927–1929)
71st (1929–1931) Senate President Camilo Osias.jpg Camilo Osías
72nd (1931–1933)
73rd (1933–1935)
74th (1935–1937) No image.svg Francisco A. Delgado
Commonwealth era
Congress Resident Commissioner
74th (1935–1937) Quintin Paredes.JPG Quintin Paredes
75th (1937–1939)
No image.svg Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
76th (1939–1941)
77th (1941–1943)
78th (1943–1945)
Carlos Romulo.jpg Carlos Peña Romulo
79th (1945–1947)

See also

References

  1. ^ Dorothy B. Fujita-Rony (2003). American Workers, Colonial Power. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23095-7. 
  2. ^ Kramer, Paul Alexander (2006). The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, & the Philippines. University of North Carolina Press. p. 325. ISBN 9780807856536. 







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