uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈 ʀ 〉, a small capital letter R. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R.
Features of the uvular trill:
[ʁ ʀ χ]
) in Continental Europe at the end of the 20th century.
only in some educated speech
usual in educated speech
There are two main theories regarding the origination of the uvular trill in European languages. According to one theory, the uvular trill originated in Standard
French around the seventeenth century, spreading to standard varieties of German, Danish, Portuguese, as well as in parts of Dutch, Norwegian, and Swedish; it is also present in other areas of Europe, but it is not clear if such pronunciations are due to French influence. In most cases, varieties have shifted this to a 2 voiced uvular fricative . ʁ
The other main theory posits that the uvular R originated within Germanic languages through a process where the alveolar R was weakened and then replaced by an imitation of the alveolar R (vocalisation).
As counterevidence against the "French origin" theory, it is stipulated that there are many signs that the uvular R existed in certain German dialects long before the 17th century. 3
Afrikaans Some dialects
Catalan 4 Some northern dialects
[koˈʀe] 'to run'
[ʀɑt] ( · help ) info 'wheel'
Randstad, Zuid-Holland and some central, eastern and southern dialects. Rather rare in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English Northumbrian dialect
Northumbrian Burr", mostly found in eastern Northumberland, declining. See English phonology
[ʀɑ̃devu] ( · help ) info 'appointment'
Dialectal. More commonly a fricative
. See ʁ French phonology
In free variation with a
voiced uvular fricative. See German phonology
May also be a
fricative or approximant. See Modern Hebrew phonology
[muˈʒɛʀ] 'woman', 'wife'
Italian Northern dialects (especially
May also be a
voiced uvular fricative or a ʁ labiodental approximant . ʋ
Contrasts with alveolar trill (
[ʀəɾiˈaɾ] 'to get scarcer'
Alternates with other uvular forms and the older alveolar trill. See
[me̞ʀˈkaðu] 'market', 'fair'
Tendency to be replaced by fricative pronunciations with time. If as
coda, generally in free variation with , x , χ , ʁ and ħ before non-voicing environments h
Romani Some dialects
Allophone of a descendant of the Indic retroflex set, so often transcribed
/ɽ/. A coronal tap, approximant or trill in other dialects; in some it merges with /r/
Lakota 11 12
[ʀí] 'it's brown'
/ʁ/ before /i/
Selkup Northern dialects
/q/ before liquids.
Sesotho Most speakers
mo ri ri
Swedish Southern dialects
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Canepari, Luciano (1999) , Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana Handbook of Italian Pronunciation (in Italian) (2 ed.), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
Ewert, A. (1963), The French Language, London: Faber
Grevisse, Maurice; Goosse, André (2008), Le Bon Usage (14th ed.), De Boeck et Larcier
Hall, Tracy Alan (1993), "The phonology of German /ʀ/", Phonology 10 (1): 83–105, doi: 10.1017/S0952675700001743
Martinet, A. (1969), Le Français sans fard, Paris: Presses Universitaires
Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
Moulton, W.G. (1952), "Jacob Böhme's uvular r", Journal of English and Germanic philology 51: 83–89
Rood, David S.; Taylor, Allan R. (1996), "Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouan Language, Part I", Handbook of North American Indians 17, Smithsonian Institution, pp. 440–482
Trudgill, Peter (1974), "Linguistic change and diffusion: Description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect", Language in Society 3 (2): 215–246, doi: 10.1017/S0047404500004358
Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7