Videotape format war
The videotape format war was a period of intense competition or "format war" of incompatible models of consumer-level analog video videocassette and video cassette recorders (VCR) in the late 1970s and the 1980s, mainly involving the Betamax and VHS formats.
The first video cassette recorder (VCR) to become available was the U-matic system, released in September 1971. U-matic was designed for commercial or professional television production use, and was not affordable or user-friendly for home videos or home movies. The first consumer-grade VCR to be released was the Philips N1500 VCR format in 1972, followed in 1975 by Sony's Betamax. This was quickly followed by the competing VHS (Video Home System) format from JVC, and later by Video 2000 from Philips. Subsequently, the Betamax–VHS format war began in earnest. Other competitors, such as Sanyo's V-Cord and Quasar's "Great Time Machine" quickly disappeared.
Sony had demonstrated a prototype videotape recording system they called "Beta" to the other electronics manufacturers in 1974, and expected that they would back a single format for the good of all. But JVC in particular decided to go with its own format1 (despite Sony's appeal to the Japanese Ministry of Trade and Industry), thus beginning the format war.
Manufacturers also introduced other systems such as needle-based, record-style discs (RCA's Capacitance Electronic Disc, JVC's Video High Density disc) and Philips' LaserDisc. None of these disc formats gained much ground as none were capable of home recording; however, they did hold small niche markets. CED's inexpensive2 record-like format (using a fine keel-shaped stylus to read an electronic signal rather than mechanical vibrations) made it attractive to low-income families during the 1980s, and LaserDisc's 5 megahertz/420 line resolution made it popular with discerning videophiles until circa 1997 (when DVD-Video became the new standard for high-quality).citation needed
Sony had met with Matsushita executives sometime in late 1974/early 1975 to discuss the forthcoming home video market.3 Both had previously cooperated in the development and marketing of the U-Matic video cassette format. Sony brought along a Betamax prototype for Matsushita's engineers to evaluate. Sony at the time was unaware of JVC's work. At a later meeting, Matsushita, with JVC management in attendance, showed Sony a VHS prototype, and advised them it was not too late to embrace VHS "for the good of the industry" but Sony management felt they were too close to production to compromise.citation needed
While VHS machines' lower retail price was a major factor, the principal battleground proved to be recording time. The original Sony Betamax video recorder for the NTSC television system could only record for 60 minutes, identical to the previous U-matic format, which had been sufficient for use in television studios. JVC's VHS could manage 120 minutes, followed by RCA's entrance into the market with a 240 minute recorder. These challenges sparked a mini-war to see who could achieve the longest recording time.citation needed
RCA had initially planned a home video format around 1974, to be called "SelectaVision MagTape," but canceled it after hearing rumors about Sony's Betamax format, and was considering Sony as an OEM for an RCA-branded VCR. RCA had discussions with Sony, but RCA felt the recording time was too short, insisting that they needed at least a 4-hour recording time (reportedly because that was the length of an average televised American football game). Sony engineers knew that the technology available to manufacture video heads wasn't up to the task yet, but halving the tape speed and track width was a possibility. However, the picture quality would be degraded severely, and at that time Sony engineers felt the compromise was not worthwhile.citation needed
Soon after, RCA met with execs with the Victor Corporation of Japan (JVC), who had created their own video format christened "VHS" (which stood for "Video Home System"4). But JVC also refused to compromise the picture quality of their format by allowing a four-hour mode. Ironically, their parent corporation, Matsushita, later met with RCA, and agreed to manufacture a four-hour-capable VHS machine for RCA, much to JVC's chagrin.dubious
RCA would go on to market "four hours, $999", forcing a price war and also a "tape length" war. Betamax eventually achieved 5 hours at Beta III speed on an ultra-thin L-830 cassette, and VHS eventually squeezed 10.6 hours with SLP/EP speed on a T-210 cassette. Slower tape speeds meant a degradation in picture quality.citation needed
When Betamax was introduced in Japan and the United States in 1975, its Beta I speed of 1.5 ips offered a slightly higher horizontal resolution (250 lines vs 240 lines horizontal NTSC), lower video noise, and less luma/chroma crosstalk than VHS, and was later marketed as providing pictures superior to VHS's playback. However the introduction of Beta II speed, 0.8 ips (two-hour mode), to compete with VHS' two-hour Standard Play mode (1.3 ips) reduced Betamax's horizontal resolution to 240 lines.5 The extension of VHS to VHS HQ increased the apparent resolution to 250 lines so that overall a Betamax/VHS user could expect virtually identical luma resolution and chroma resolution (≈30 lines) wherein the actual picture performance depended on other factors including the condition and quality of the videotape and the specific video recorder machine model. For most consumers the difference as seen on the average television of the time was negligible.citation needed
Another improvement would be SuperBeta (sometimes called High Band Beta) in 1985. SuperBeta allowed for a gain of 20% to 290 lines in horizontal resolution and some mechanical changes to reduce video noise but Betamax's American and European share had already dropped to less than 10% of the market.citation needed
For PAL versions time was less of an issue. Betamax's longest tape (L-830) could record for 3 hours and 35 minutes, compared to VHS's 4 hours. For the European markets the issue was one of cost, since VHS had already gained dominance in the United States (70% of the market), and the large economy of scale allowed VHS units to be sold at a far lower cost than the rarer Betamax units.citation needed (See market share below.)
In the mid-to-late 80s, both formats were extended to Super Betamax and Super VHS. Super Betamax offered a slight improvement from 250 to 290 lines horizontally, which could make near-identical copies of broadcast or cable television. Super VHS offered up to 420 lines horizontal (in modern digital terms, 560 pixels edge-to-edge) that surpassed broadcast-quality and matched the quality of laserdiscs. However, the "super" standards remained expensive niche products for a small minority of videophiles and camcorder hobbyists.citation needed
When home VCRs started to become popular in the UK, the main issue was one of availability and price. VHS machines were available through the high street rental chains such as Radio Rentals and DER (most of whom were owned by Ferguson Electronics, who were part-owned by JVC, the inventors of VHS), while Beta was seen as the more upmarket choice for people who wanted quality and were prepared to pay for it. By 1980, out of an estimated 100,000 homes with VCRs, 70% were rented, and the presence of three competing formats (the third being Video 2000) meant that renting was an even more attractive choice, since a lot of money (about £2000 or $3900 in today's priceswhen?) could be spent on a system which might become obsolete. By the time Betamax machines became easier to rent, VHS had already claimed 70% of the market.citation needed
Within continental Europe there were three choices by 1980, with the arrival of the Video 2000 format from Philips and Grundig, which replaced Philips' outdated "VCR" format. Although it featured many capabilities formerly only available on expensive broadcast video recorders, V2000 had too long a development cycle and arrived late to the market. Apart from this, to keep costs down many of its unique features, such as Dynamic Track Following, were only implemented on the most expensive models, meaning mainstream models suffered from indifferent video quality. Also, many features that came standard on VHS and Betamax machines (such as direct AV in and out connectors), were only available as expensive "optional extras" on V2000. The machines were also found to be less reliable than their VHS and Beta counterparts and for all these reasons the format never gained substantial market share. V2000 was cancelled in 1985, the first casualty of the format war.citation needed
The outcome was decided by other more important factors such as longer home-recording time (up to 10.6 hours on a T-210). Although Betamax initially owned 100% of the market in 1975, the perceived value of longer recording times eventually tipped the balance in favor of VHS. By 1981, U.S. Beta sales had sunk to only 25% of all sales. As movie and video studios turned away from Beta, the combination of lower market share and a lack of available titles strengthened VHS's hand.6 In the UK, Beta held a 25% market share, but by 1986 it was down to 7.5%, and continued to decline further. In Japan, Betamax had more success and eventually evolved into Enhanced Definition Betamax with 500+ lines resolution (DVD quality), but eventually both Betamax and VHS were supplanted by laser-based technology. The last Sony Betamax was produced in 2002. Although VHS is still available in VHS/DVD combination units, the last dedicated JVC VHS unit was produced in 2007.citation needed
Beta sales dwindled away and VHS emerged as the winner of the format war. The video format war is now a highly scrutinized event in business and marketing history, leading to a plethora of market investigations into why Betamax failed. Sony seemed to have misjudged the home video market. JVC quickly licensed its VHS technology and just about every major consumer electronics company of the era (JVC, Panasonic, RCA, Magnavox, Quasar, Zenith, et al.) had their own brand of VCR and at a significantly lower retail price, due in part to high competition among the brands, than the Betamax. Sony believed that the one-hour length of their current U-matic format would be sufficient for Betamax. However, U-matic was primarily a professional standard with constant surveillance by television technicians and which did not need more than one hour length per tape. For home usage, one hour would not be enough to record lengthy programming, such as a baseball game or a movie. Therefore, consumers naturally flocked to tape formats that could record two hours or more.citation needed
Further driving the VHS format was its inherent two-hour playback time (SP speed)—a much better fit for Hollywood movies than Betamax's one-hour limitation. This event spawned the video rental business that flourished in the 1970s and 80s. Being able to watch Hollywood movies at home was a major innovation that transformed consumer habits and allowed people to see older "classic" films that had been buried in studio vaults for years.citation needed
What Sony did not take into account was what consumers wanted. While Betamax was believed to be the superior format in the minds of the public and press (due to excellent marketing by Sony), consumers wanted an affordable VCR (a VHS often cost hundreds of dollars less than a Betamax);7 Sony believed that having better quality recordings was the key to success, and that consumers would be willing to pay a higher retail price for this, whereas it soon became clear that consumer desire was focused more intently on recording time, lower retail price, compatibility with other machines for sharing (as VHS was becoming the format in the majority of homes), brand loyalty to companies who licensed VHS (RCA, Magnavox, Zenith, Quasar, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, even JVC itself, et al.), and compatibility for easy transfer of information.8 In addition, Sony, being the first producer to offer their technology, also thought it would establish Betamax as the leading format. This kind of lock-in and path dependence failed for Sony, but succeeded for JVC. For thirty years JVC dominated the home market with their VHS, Super VHS and VHS-Compact formats, and collected billions in royalty payments.9
The video recording market was an unknown when VCRs first came on the market; as such, Sony and JVC were both developing technologies that were unproven. As a result of the desire to enter the marketplace faster, the firms both spent less time on research and development and tried to save money by picking a version of the technology they thought would do best without exploring the full gamut of options.10 This is why there was more than one format on the market and why they continued to reinvent them with longer playing times and better quality.citation needed
In 1988, Sony began to market their own VHS machines, and, despite claims that they were still backing Beta, it was clear that the format was dead - at least in Europe and North America. In parts of South America and in Japan Beta continued to be popular and was still in production up to the end of 2002. Countries such as the Philippines for instance still had significant Betamax followers up until the late 90s. Today, the only remaining aspect of the Betamax system is the slang term 'betamaxed', used to describe something that had a brief shelf life and was quickly replaced by the competition. Despite the failure of Betamax, its technological successor the Betacam tape would become an industry standard for video recording, production and presentation, and continues to be used to this day, only now beginning to be supplanted by digital or high-definition tape recordings.citation needed
After the videotape format war, VHS was dominant until the creation of DVD technology. The major electronics corporations agreed on a single standard for playback of pre-recorded material on DVDs. A minor skirmish arose over DIVX, but it died a quick death. A later format war resulted from a failure to agree on a single standard for DVD's high-definition successor (HD DVD) in May 2005.11 This format war ended in victory for Sony's Blu-ray in February 2008.12
- Comparison of high definition optical disc formats
- De facto standard
- Dominant Design
- High definition optical disc format war
- Peep search A picture search system pioneered with Betamax and available on most video formats since.
- Videocassette recorder
- "The early days" by J.K.Clemens and E.O.Keizer. "Electronic Servicing & Technology" magazine, May 1982.
- Lardner, James (1987). Fast Forward: Hollywood, the Japanese, and the VCR Wars. New York: New American Library. ISBN 0-451-62626-5.
- "IEEE History Center: Development of VHS", cites the original name as "Video Home System", from an article by Yuma Shiraishi, one of its inventors. Accessed December 28, 2006.
- Video Interchange. "Video History". Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- Helge Moulding. "The Decline and Fall of Betamax". Archived from the original on 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- Besen, Stanley M.; Farrell, Joseph (1994). "Choosing How to Compete: Strategies and Tactics in Standardization". Journal of Economic Perspectives 8 (2): 117–131. doi:10.1257/jep.8.2.117.
- Liebowitz, S.J. (1995). "Path Dependence, Lock-In, and History". Journal of Law Economics & Organization 11: 205–226.
- Cowan, Robin (1991). "Tortoises and Hares: Choice Among Technologies of Unknown Merit". The Economic Journal 101 (407): 801–814. doi:10.2307/2233856. JSTOR 2233856.
- Tony Smith. "Toshiba, Sony fail to agree - again". Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- Toshiba. "Toshiba Announces Discontinuation of HD DVD Businesses". Retrieved 2013-09-27.