Voiced palatal fricative

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Voiced palatal fricative
IPA number 139
Entity (decimal) ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+029D
Kirshenbaum C<vcd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʝ (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription j, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database.citation needed In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.


Features of the voiced palatal fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian frayar [fɾäˈʝär] 'to destroy'
Berber Kabyle cceǥ [ʃʃəʝ] 'to slip'
Catalan Majorcan1 figuera [fiˈʝeɾə] 'fig tree' Occurs in complementary distribution with ɟ. Corresponds to ɣ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Dutch goed [ʝut] 'good' More common in southern Dutch dialects, including all of Dutch-speaking Belgium.2 See Dutch phonology
Greek34 γεια geia [ʝ̠ɐ] 'hello' Somewhat retracted. See Modern Greek phonology
Cypriot5 ελιά eliá [e̞ˈʝːɐ] 'olive' Allophone of /ʎ/.
Hungarian6 dobj be [dobʝ bɛ] 'throw (one/some) in' An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish7 an ghrian [ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ] 'the sun' See Irish phonology
Pashto Wardak dialect8 موږ [muʝ] 'we'
Ripuarian zeije [ˈtsɛʝə] 'to show'
Scottish Gaelic9 dhiubh [ˈʝu] 'of them' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Spanish10 sayo [ˈsaʝo̞] 'smock' More often is an approximant. May also be represented by ll in certain dialects. See Spanish phonology
Swedish11 jord About this sound [ʝuːɖ]  'soil' See Swedish phonology
West Frisian
citation needed
hja [ʝa] 'she/they' Mostly used in more formal older forms

See also


  1. ^ Wheeler (2005:22–23)
  2. ^ Pieter van Reenen; Nanette Huijs (2000). "De harde en de zachte g, de spelling gh versus g voor voorklinker in het veertiende-eeuwse Middelnederlands.". Taal en Tongval, 52(Thema nr.), 159–181 (in Dutch). Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  3. ^ Nicolaidis (2003:?)
  4. ^ Arvaniti (2007:20)
  5. ^ Arvaniti (2010:116–117)
  6. ^ Gósy (2004:77, 130)
  7. ^ Ó Sé (2000:17)
  8. ^ Henderson (1983:595)
  9. ^ Oftedal (1956:?)
  10. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  11. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)


  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art", Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day, University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris 
  • Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597, JSTOR 602038 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (Cambridge University Press) 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7 

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