Voiced palatal fricative
|Voiced palatal fricative|
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ʝ〉 (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription 〈j〉, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.
The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database.citation needed In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.
Features of the voiced palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Catalan||Majorcan1||figuera||[fiˈʝeɾə]||'fig tree'||Occurs in complementary distribution with ɟ. Corresponds to ɣ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology|
|Dutch||goed||[ʝut]||'good'||More common in southern Dutch dialects, including all of Dutch-speaking Belgium.2 See Dutch phonology|
|Greek34||γεια geia||[ʝ̠ɐ]||'hello'||Somewhat retracted. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Cypriot5||ελιά eliá||[e̞ˈʝːɐ]||'olive'||Allophone of /ʎ/.|
|Hungarian6||dobj be||[dobʝ bɛ]||'throw (one/some) in'||An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish7||an ghrian||[ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ]||'the sun'||See Irish phonology|
|Scottish Gaelic9||dhiubh||[ˈʝu]||'of them'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Spanish10||sayo||[ˈsaʝo̞]||'smock'||More often is an approximant. May also be represented by 〈ll〉 in certain dialects. See Spanish phonology|
|Swedish11||jord||[ʝuːɖ] (help·info)||'soil'||See Swedish phonology|
|hja||[ʝa]||'she/they'||Mostly used in more formal older forms|
- Wheeler (2005:22–23)
- Pieter van Reenen; Nanette Huijs (2000). "De harde en de zachte g, de spelling gh versus g voor voorklinker in het veertiende-eeuwse Middelnederlands.". Taal en Tongval, 52(Thema nr.), 159–181 (in Dutch). Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Nicolaidis (2003:?)
- Arvaniti (2007:20)
- Arvaniti (2010:116–117)
- Gósy (2004:77, 130)
- Ó Sé (2000:17)
- Henderson (1983:595)
- Oftedal (1956:?)
- Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
- Engstrand (1999:140)
- Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art", Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208
- Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day, University of Athens, pp. 107–124
- Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris
- Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597, JSTOR 602038
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
- Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127
- Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0
- Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap
- Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (Cambridge University Press) 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173
- Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7