Vojvodina

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Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Vojvodina (red) in Serbia (white)
Location of Vojvodina (red) in Serbia (white)
Capital
and largest city
Novi Sad
Official languages Serbian[a]
Hungarian
Slovak
Romanian
Croatian[a]
Rusyn1
Country  Serbia
Government Autonomous province
 -  Prime minister Bojan Pajtić (DS)
Establishment
 -  Formation of Serbian Vojvodina 1848 
 -  Establishment 1944 
Area
 -  Total 21,506 km2
8,304 sq mi
Population
 -  2011 census 1,931,809
 -  Density 90/km2
230/sq mi
Currency Serbian dinar (RSD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
a. ^ Serbian and Croatian are considered by the local authorities to constitute separate languages, but are in fact standardized varieties of the Serbo-Croatian language.234

Vojvodina, officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina [ʋǒjʋodina] ( ) (see Name for other languages)), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain of Central Europe. Novi Sad is the largest city and administrative center of Vojvodina and the second largest city in Serbia.5 Vojvodina has a population over 1.93 million (approximately 26.88% of Serbia excluding Kosovo and 21.56% including Kosovo). It has a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural identity,6 with a number of mechanisms for the promotion of minority rights; there are more than 26 ethnic groups in the province,78 which has six official languages.910

Name

The name "Vojvodina" in Serbian means a type of duchy – more specifically, a voivodeship. It derives from the word "vojvoda" (See: voivode) which stems from the Proto-Slavic language word "voevoda". Those words are etymologically connected with modern-day words "vojnik" (soldier) and "voditi" (to lead). Its original name (from 1848) was the "Serbian Voivodeship" (Srpska Vojvodina).

The full official names of the province in all official languages of Vojvodina are:

  • Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina
  • Hungarian: Vajdaság Autonóm Tartomány
  • Slovak: Samosprávna oblasť Vojvodina
  • Romanian: Provincia Autonomă Voivodina
  • Croatian: Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina
  • Pannonian Rusyn: Автономна Покраїна Войводина (Avtonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina)

Names in other languages that are not official in the province, but that are spoken by some local inhabitants:

  • Albanian: Krahina Autonome e Vojvodinës
  • Bosnian: Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina
  • Bulgarian: Автономна област Войводина (Avtonomna oblast Voyvodina)
  • Bunjevac dialect: Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina
  • Czech: Autonomní oblast Vojvodina
  • German: Autonome Provinz Woiwodina
  • Greek: Αυτόνομη Επαρχία της Βοϊβοδίνας (Aftónomi Eparchía tis Voïvodínas)
  • Macedonian: Автономна Покраина Војводина (Avtonomna Pokraina Vojvodina)
  • Montenegrin: Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina, Аутономна Покрајина Војводина
  • Romani: Voyvodina
  • Russian: Автономный край Воеводина (Avtonomny kray Voyevodina)
  • Slovene: Avtonomna pokrajina Vojvodina
  • Ukrainian: Автономний край Воєводина (Avtonomnyi krai Voievodina)

Geography

It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain of Central Europe. It has a population of about 2 million (about 27% of Serbia's total). The region is divided by the Danube and Tisa rivers into: Bačka in the northwest, Banat in the east and Syrmia (Srem) in the southwest. A small part of the Mačva region is also located in Vojvodina, in the Srem District. Today, the western part of Syrmia is in Croatia, the northern part of Bačka is in Hungary, the eastern part of Banat is in Romania (with a small piece in Hungary), while Baranja (which is between the Danube and the Drava) is in Hungary and Croatia. Vojvodina has a total surface area of 21,500 km2 (8,300 sq mi).11 Vojvodina is also part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisa euroregion.

History

Pre-Roman times and Roman administration

In Neolithic period, two important archaeological cultures flourished in this area: the Starčevo culture and the Vinča culture. First Indo-European peoples settled in the territory of present-day Vojvodina in 4200 BC. During the Eneolithic period, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, several Indo-European archaeological cultures were centered in or around Vojvodina: the Vučedol culture, the Vinkovci culture, the Vatin culture, the Belegiš culture, the Bosut culture, etc. Before the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC, Indo-European peoples of Illyrian, Thracian and Celtic origin inhabited this area. First states organized in this area were the Celtic State of the Scordisci (3rd century BC-1st century AD) with capital in Singidunum (Belgrade), and Dacian Kingdom of Burebista (1st century BC).

During Roman rule, Sirmium (today's Sremska Mitrovica) was one of the four capital cities of the Roman Empire and six Roman Emperors were born in this city or in its surroundings. The city was also the capital of several Roman administrative units, including the Lower Pannonia, the Pannonia Secunda, the Diocese of Pannonia, and the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. Roman rule lasted until the 5th century, after which the region came into the possession of various peoples and states. While Banat was a part of the Roman province of Dacia, Syrmia belonged to a Roman province of Pannonia. Bačka was not part of the Roman Empire and was populated and ruled by Sarmatian Iazyges.

Early Middle Ages and Slavic settlement

After the Romans were driven away from this region, various Indo-European and Turkic peoples and states ruled in the area. These peoples included Goths, Sarmatians, Huns, Gepids and Avars. For regional history, the largest in importance was a Gepid state, which had its capital in Sirmium. According to the 7th-century Miracles of Saint Demetrius, Avars gave the region of Syrmia to a Bulgar leader named Kuber in the 670s. The Bulgars of Kuber moved south with Maurus to Macedonia where they co-operated with Tervel in the 8th century.

Slavs settled today's Vojvodina in the 6th and 7th centuries,121314151617 before some of them crossed the rivers Sava and Danube and settled in the Balkans. Slavic tribes that lived in the territory of present-day Vojvodina included Abodrites, Severans, Braničevci and Timočani. In the 9th century, after the fall of the Avar state, the first forms of Slavic statehood emerged in this area. The first Slavic states that ruled over this region included the Bulgarian Empire, Great Moravia and Ljudevit's Pannonian Duchy. During the Bulgarian administration (9th century), local Bulgarian dukes, Salan and Glad, ruled over the region. Salan's residence was Titel, while that of Glad was possibly in the rumoured rampart of Galad or perhaps in the Kladovo (Gladovo) in eastern Serbia. Glad's descendant was the duke Ahtum, another local ruler from the 11th century who opposed the establishment of Hungarian rule over the region.

In the village of Čelarevo archaeologists have also found traces of people who practised the Judaic religion. Bunardžić dated Avar-Bulgar graves excavated in Čelarevo, containing skulls with Mongolian features and Judaic symbols, to the late 8th and 9th centuries. Erdely and Vilkhnovich consider the graves to belong to the Kabars who eventually broke ties with the Khazar Empire between the 830s and 862 (Three other Khazar tribes joined the Magyars and took part in the Magyar conquest of the Carpathian basin including what is now Vojvodina in 895-907).

Hungarian administration

Following territorial disputes with Byzantine and Bulgarian states, most of Vojvodina became part of the Kingdom of Hungary between 10th and 12th century and remained under Hungarian administration until the 16th century (Following periods of Ottoman and Habsburg administrations, Hungarian political dominance over most of the region was established again in 1867 and over entire region in 1882, after abolishment of Habsburg Military Frontier).

Regional demographic balance started changing in the 11th century when Magyars started to replace local Slavic population. Since the 14th century, the balance started to change again in favour of the Slavs when Serbian refugees fleeing from territories conquered by the Ottoman army settled in the area. Most18 of the Hungarians left from the region during Ottoman conquest and early period of Ottoman administration, so the population of Vojvodina in Ottoman times was predominantly Serbs (who comprised an absolute majority of Vojvodina at the time19) and Muslims.20

Ottoman administration

After the defeat of the Kingdom of Hungary at Mohács by the Ottoman Empire, the region fell into a period of anarchy and civil wars. In 1526 Jovan Nenad, a leader of the Serb mercenaries, established his rule in Bačka, northern Banat and a small part of Syrmia. He created an ephemeral independent state, with Subotica as its capital. At the peak of his power, Jovan Nenad proclaimed himself Serbian Emperor in Subotica. Taking advantage of the extremely confused military and political situation, the Hungarian noblemen from the region joined forces against him and defeated the Serbian troops in the summer of 1527. Emperor Jovan Nenad was assassinated and his state collapsed. After the fall of emperor's state, the supreme military commander of Jovan Nenad's army, Radoslav Čelnik, established his own temporary state in the region of Syrmia, where he ruled as Ottoman vassal.

A few decades later, the whole region was added to the Ottoman Empire, which ruled over it until the end of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, when it was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy. The Treaty of Karlowitz of 1699, between Holy League and Ottoman Empire, marked the withdrawal of the Ottoman forces from Central Europe, and the supremacy of the Habsburg Empire in that part of the continent. According to the treaty, western part of Vojvodina passed to Habsburgs. Eastern part of it (eastern Syrmia and Province of Tamışvar) remained in Ottoman hands until Austrian conquest in 1716. This new border change is ratified by the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.

Habsburg administration

During the Great Serb Migration, some Serbs from Ottoman territories settled in the Habsburg Monarchy at the end of the 17th century (in 1690), but most of them went further to the north (in what is now Republic of Hungary) and only small part of them settled in western part of present-day Vojvodina. However, because of this event, all Serbs in Habsburg Monarchy gained a status of a recognized nation with extensive rights, in exchange for providing a border militia that could be mobilized against invaders from the south, as well as in case of civil unrest in Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary.

At the beginning of Habsburg rule, most of the region was integrated into the Habsburg Military Frontier district, while western parts of Bačka were put under civil administration within Bač county. Later, the civil administration was expanded to other (mostly northern) parts of the region, while southern parts remained under military administration. Eastern part of it was held by the Ottomans between 1787–1788, during the Russo-Turkish War.

In 1716, Vienna temporarily forbade settlement by Hungarians and Jews in the area, while large numbers of German speakers were settled in the region. From 1782, Protestant Hungarians and Germans settled in larger numbers.

Proclaimed borders of Serbian Vojvodina at May Assembly (1848) and autonomous Ottoman Principality of Serbia

During the 1848-49 revolutions, Vojvodina was a site of war between Serbs and Hungarians, due to the opposite national conceptions of these two peoples. At the May Assembly in Sremski Karlovci (13–15 May 1848), Serbs declared the constitution of the Serbian Voivodship (Serbian Duchy), a Serbian autonomous region within the Austrian Empire. The Serbian Voivodship consisted of Syrmia, Bačka, Banat, and Baranja. The metropolitan of Sremski Karlovci, Josif Rajačić, was elected patriarch, while Stevan Šupljikac was chosen as first voivod (duke). The ethnic war hit this area perhaps the hardest, with terrible atrocities committed against the civilian populations by both sides.

Following the Habsburg and Serb victory over Hungarians in 1849, a new administrative territory was created in the region (in November 1849), in accordance with a decision made by the Austrian emperor. By this decision, Serbian autonomous region created in 1848 was transformed into the new Austrian crown land known as Voivodship of Serbia and Tamiš Banat. It consisted of Banat, Bačka and Syrmia, excluding the southern parts of these regions which were part of the Military Frontier. An Austrian governor seated in Temeschwar ruled the area, and the title of voivod belonged to the emperor himself. The full title of the emperor was "Grand Voivod of the Voivodship of Serbia" (German: Großwoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien). German and Illyrian (Serbian) were the official languages of the crown land. In 1860, the new province was abolished and most of it (with exception of Syrmia) was again included into Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Since 1867, Kingdom of Hungary is one of two self-governing parts of Austria-Hungary. The era following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was a period of economic flourishing, since Kingdom of Hungary had the second fastest growing economy in Europe between 1867–1913, but ethnic relations were strained. According to the 1910 census, the last census conducted in Austria-Hungary, population of Vojvodina included 510,754 (33.8%) Serbs, 425,672 (28.1%) Hungarians and 324,017 (21.4%) Germans.21

After 1918

At the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed. On 29 October 1918, Syrmia became a part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. On 31 October 1918, the Banat Republic was proclaimed in Timișoara. The government of Hungary recognized its independence, but it was short-lived.

On 25 November 1918, the Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other nations of Vojvodina in Novi Sad proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina (Banat, Bačka and Baranja) with the Kingdom of Serbia (The assembly numbered 757 deputies, of which 578 were Serbs, 84 Bunjevci, 62 Slovaks, 21 Rusyn, 6 Germans, 3 Šokci, 2 Croats and 1 Hungarian). One day before this, on 24 November, the Assembly of Syrmia also proclaimed the unification of Syrmia with Serbia. On 1 December 1918, Vojvodina (as part of the Kingdom of Serbia) officially became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Novi Sad, historical capital of Vojvodina, in the 1920s.

Between 1929 and 1941, the region was known as the Danube Banovina, a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Its capital city was Novi Sad. The Banovina consisted of the Syrmia, Bačka, Banat, Baranja, Šumadija, and Braničevo regions.

Between 1941 and 1944, during World War II, the Axis Powers (Nazi Germany and its allies, Independent State of Croatia and Hungary) divided and occupied Vojvodina. Bačka and Baranja were annexed by Horthy's Hungary and Syrmia was included into the Independent State of Croatia. A smaller Danube Banovina (including Banat, Šumadija, and Braničevo) existed as part of the area governed by the Military Administration in Serbia. The administrative center of this smaller province was Smederevo. However, Banat itself was a separate autonomous region ruled by its German minority. The occupying powers committed numerous crimes against the civilian population, especially against Serbs, Jews and Roma; the Jewish population of Vojvodina was almost completely killed or deported.citation needed In total, Axis (German, Croatian and Hungarian) occupational authorities killed about 50,000 citizens of Vojvodina (mostly Serbs, Jews and Roma) while more than 280,000 people were interned, arrested, violated or tortured.22

Axis occupation ended in 1944 and the region was temporarily placed under military administration (1944–1945) run by the new communist authorities. During and after the military administration, several thousands of citizens were killed - this affected mostly ethnic Germans, but also one part of Hungarian and Serb populations. Both the war-time Axis occupational authorities and the post-war communist authorities ran concentration/prison camps in the territory of Vojvodina (See the List of concentration and internment camps). While war-time prisoners in these camps were mostly Jews, Serbs and communists, post-war camps were formed for ethnic Germans (Danube Swabians). Most Vojvodina Germans (about 200,000) left from the region in 1944, together with the defeated German army.23 Most of those who remained in the region (about 150,000) were sent to some of the villages cordoned off as prisons. It is estimated that some 48,447 Germans died in the camps from disease, hunger, malnutrition, mistreatment, and coldness. Some 8,049 Germans were killed by partisans during military administration in Vojvodina after October 1944.242526 It is also estimated that post-war communist authorities killed some 20,00027 Hungarians and some 23,000-24,00028 Serbs. According to professor Dragoljub Živković, 47,000 ethnic Serbs were killed in Vojvodina during entire 1941-1948 period. About half of that number were killed by occupational forces and another half were killed by post-war communist authorities.28

The region was politically restored in 1944 (incorporating Syrmia, Banat, Bačka, and Baranja) and became an autonomous province of Serbia in 1945. Instead of the previous name (Danube Banovina), the region regained its historical name of Vojvodina, while its capital city remained Novi Sad. When final borders of Vojvodina were defined, Baranja was assigned to Croatia, while northern part of Mačva region was assigned to Vojvodina.

Modern political status

At first, the province enjoyed only a small level of autonomy within Serbia, but it gained extensive rights of self-rule under the 1974 Yugoslav constitution, which gave both Kosovo and Vojvodina de facto veto power in the Serbian and Yugoslav parliaments, as changes to their status could not be made without the consent of the two Provincial Assemblies. The 1974 Serbian constitution, adopted at the same time, reiterated that "the Socialist Republic of Serbia comprises the Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, which originated in the common struggle of nations and nationalities of Yugoslavia in the National Liberation War (the Second World War) and socialist revolution".

Under the rule of the Serbian president Slobodan Milošević, Vojvodina and Kosovo lost elements of statehood in September 1990. Vojvodina was still referred to as an autonomous province of Serbia, but most of its autonomous powers – including, crucially, its vote on the Yugoslav collective presidency – were transferred to the control of Belgrade. The province, however, still had its own parliament and government and some other autonomous functions as well.

The fall of Milošević in 2000 created a new climate for reform in Vojvodina. Following talks between the political parties, the level of the province's autonomy was increased by the omnibus law in 2002. The old statute of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina dated from 1991 and has been deemed by the Serbian Parliament as outdated. The Vojvodina provincial assembly adopted a new statute on 15 October 2008. Eighty-nine of 120 councilors voted in favor of the bill, whilst twenty-one voted against. The Statute, partly amended, was approved by Parliament of Serbia on 30 November 2009 with 137 MPs in favor and 24 against. The Statute was officially proclaimed on 14 December 2009, in Novi Sad, and came into force on 1 January 2010.

Districts, municipalities and cities

Districts, municipalities and cities of Vojvodina

After a constitution of Serbia from 1992, Vojvodina is divided into seven districts, which are called after its main geographical location. Districts are named after the main region which district covers. Minister of Local Government, in the Serbian Government appoints commissioners of the districts, but they have no political power. Local government lies in municipalities and cites. The seven districts are further subdivided into 39 municipalities and the cities of Novi Sad, Subotica, Zrenjanin, Pančevo, Sombor, and Sremska Mitrovica.

District District seat with city status Municipalities Area (km²) Population (2011 census)
Central Banat Zrenjanin Novi Bečej, Nova Crnja, Sečanj, Žitište 3,256 187,667
North Bačka Subotica Bačka Topola, Mali Iđoš 1,784 186,906
North Banat Kikinda1 Ada, Čoka, Kanjiža, Kikinda, Novi Kneževac, Senta 2,329 147,770
South Bačka Novi Sad Bač, Bačka Palanka, Bački Petrovac, Bečej, Beočin, Vrbas, Srbobran, Sremski Karlovci, Temerin, Titel, Žabalj 4,016 615,371
South Banat Pančevo Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovačica, Kovin, Opovo, Plandište, Vršac 4,245 293,730
Syrmia Sremska Mitrovica Inđija, Irig, Pećinci, Ruma, Šid, Stara Pazova 3,486 312,278
West Bačka Sombor Apatin, Kula, Odžaci 2,420 188,087
Total 21,500 1,931,809

1 - Kikinda is only district seat which does not have city status.

Largest settlements

Map showing locations of all urban settlements (cities and towns) of Vojvodina.

Largest settlements (cities, towns, villages) of Vojvodina (with population figures from 2011):29

Demographics

Ethnic map of Vojvodina based on the 2011 municipality data
Language map of Vojvodina based on the 2011 municipality data
Religion in Vojvodina (2011 census)

Vojvodina is more diverse than the rest of Serbia with more than 25 ethnic groups and six official languages.30

The largest ethnic groups are Serbs (66.76%) and Hungarians (13%).31 32

Population by national or ethnic groups (2011 census):3133

Number %
TOTAL 1,931,809 100
Serbs 1,289,635 66.76
Hungarians 251,136 13
Slovaks 50,321 2.6
Croats 47,033 2.43
Romani 42,391 2.19
Romanians 25,410 1.32
Montenegrins 22,141 1.15
Bunjevci 16,469 0.85
Rusyns 13,928 0.72
Yugoslavs 12,176 0.63
Macedonians 10,392 0.54
Ukrainians 4,202 0.22
Muslims (by nationality) 3,360 0.17
Germans 3,272 0.17
Albanians 2,251 0.12
Slovenes 1,815 0.09
Bulgarians 1,489 0.08
Goranis 1,179 0.06
Russians 1,173 0.06
Bosniaks 780 0.04
Vlachs 170 0.01
Others 6,710 0.35
Regional affiliation 28,567 1.48
Undeclared 81,018 4.19
Unknown 14,791 0.77

There is still no other data from 2011. The native language and religion data is according to the previous 2002 census. Population by native language:

Number %
Serbian language 1,557,020 76.63
Hungarian language 284,205 13.99
Slovak language 55,065 2.71
Romanian language 29,512 1.45
Romani language 21,939 1.08
Croatian language 21,053 1.04
Rusyn language 11,154 0.57
Macedonian language 4,152 n/a
Albanian language 2,369 n/a
Bulgarian language 920 n/a

Population by religion:

Number %
Eastern Orthodox Christians 1,401,475 68.97
Catholics
(Roman Catholic and Eastern Rite)
388,313 19.11
Protestants 72,159 3.55
Atheists 12,583 n/a
Muslims 8,073 n/a
Jews 329 n/a
Oriental religions
(Buddhism, Hinduism etc.)
166 n/a
Others 4,456 n/a
Without religious affiliation 418 n/a
Undeclared 101,144 n/a
Unknown 42,876 n/a

Population by gender:

  • 984,942 males
  • 1,047,050 females

Population by age groups:

  • 0–14 years: 15.85% (165,332 males, 156,873 females)
  • 15–64 years: 68.62% (693,646 males, 700,416 females)
  • 65 years and over: 15.53% (125,964 males, 189,761 females)

Source: Statistical Office of Serbia

Politics

The current ruling coalition in the Vojvodina parliament (after 2012 elections) is composed of the following political parties: Democratic Party, League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina and Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians.

The current president of Vojvodinian government is Bojan Pajtić (Democratic Party), while the president of the Vojvodinian parliament is István Pásztor (Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians).

Culture

Petrovaradin fortress and Novi Sad, early 18th century.
Theatre in Subotica, the oldest professional theatre in Vojvodina (1852), second oldest in Serbia.
Zrenjanin, the main square.

Vojvodina has the regional Vojvodina Academy of Sciences and Arts. Its main aim is to cherish traditions in sciences and arts of the multicultural and multiethnic circle through cooperation with other academies and institutions and to improve life conditions of the region by using the spiritual and natural resources of Vojvodina. The government of Vojvodina is the founder of several newspapers and magazines in Vojvodina's official languages: Дневник ("Daily news") in Serbian and Magyar Szó ("Hungarian Word") in Hungarian are daily newspapers; weekly magazines are Hrvatska riječ ("Croatian Word") in Croatian, Hlas Ľudu ("The Voice of the People") in Slovak, Libertatea ("Freedom") in Romanian, and Руске слово ("Rusyn Word") in Rusyn. There is also Bunjevačke novine ("The Bunjevac newspaper") in Bunjevac. A Hidden Europe article praised the cosmopolitanism in the province.34

Tourism

Tourist destinations in Vojvodina include well known Orthodox monasteries on Fruška Gora mountain, numerous hunting grounds, cultural-historical monuments, different folklores, interesting galleries and museums, plain landscapes with a lot of greenery, big rivers, canals and lakes, sandy terrain Deliblatska Peščara ("the European Sahara"), etc. In the last few years, Exit has been very popular among the European summer music festivals.

Economy

The economy of Vojvodina is largely based on developed food industry and fertile agricultural soil that make up 84% of its territory. About 70% of agricultural products is corn, 20% industrial herbs, and 10% other agricultural cultures. Other branches of industry are also developed such as the metal industry, chemical industry, electrical industry, oil industry and construction industry. In the past decade, ICT sector has been growing rapidly and has taken significant role in Vojvodina's economic development.

Companies:

Vojvodina promotes its investment potentials through the Vojvodina Investment Promotion (VIP) agency, which was founded by the Parliament of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.

Human rights

In 2005, several international organizations including the European Parliament and Human Rights Watch have expressed concern about rising levels of ethnic tension and related violent incidents in Vojvodina.35 Of particular concern, according to the reports, is a frequently lax response on the part of the police.

Gallery

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.vojvodina.gov.rs/en/autonomous-province-vojvodina
  2. ^ David Dalby, Linguasphere (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".
  3. ^ Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."
  4. ^ Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010, pp. 15-16.
  5. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/Serbia-Cities.html
  6. ^ http://www.vojvodina.gov.rs/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=174&Itemid=83
  7. ^ http://www.arhiva.serbia.gov.rs/cms/view.php/1045.print.html
  8. ^ http://www.vip.org.rs/index.aspx?tabId=62&menutabid=10
  9. ^ http://www.bgcentar.org.rs/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&id=22:podzakonska-akta&download=250:statut-autonomne-pokrajine-vojvodine&Itemid=54
  10. ^ http://www.viplc-backatopola.com/invenve.html
  11. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/631952/Vojvodina
  12. ^ http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/slavs_map.jpg
  13. ^ http://www.home-edu.ru/user/uatml/00000628/rumjancev/drevnieslavjane/rasselenie.jpg
  14. ^ http://ark.wz.cz/ib/slavic_expansion.jpg
  15. ^ "Blic Online | Slovenski grobovi uz reku Galadsku". Blic.rs. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  16. ^ "Obicaji i Verovanja Slovena Na Tlu Danasnje Vojvodine". Scribd.com. 2010-05-22. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  17. ^ http://www.memo.fr/Media/Salves-X-XIIe.jpg
  18. ^ Károly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsisné Hodosi, Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications LLC, 1998, page 140.
  19. ^ Károly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsisné Hodosi, Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications LLC, 1998, page 155.
  20. ^ Károly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsisné Hodosi, Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications LLC, 1998, page 140.
  21. ^ http://www.hungarian-history.hu/lib/hmcb/Tab21.htm
  22. ^ Dr Dušan Popov, Vojvodina, Enciklopedija Novog Sada, sveska 5, Novi Sad, 1996, page 196.
  23. ^ Dragomir Jankov, Vojvodina - propadanje jednog regiona, Novi Sad, 2004, page 76.
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  25. ^ de Zayas.
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  28. ^ a b Srbe podjednako ubijali okupatori i „oslobodioci”
  29. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/Serbia.html
  30. ^ Johnstone, Sarah (2007). Europe on a shoestring. Lonely Planet. p. 981. ISBN 978-1-74104-591-8. 
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  34. ^ Two communities in Banat, Hidden Europe magazine #13 (March 2007) by Laurence Mitchell
  35. ^ Dangerous Indifference: Violence against Minorities in Serbia: Assaults on Minorities in Vojvodina

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