Вытегорский район (Russian)
Location of Vytegorsky District in Vologda Oblast
Andoma Hill, the formation on the coast of Lake Onega close to Andomsky Pogost
|Administrative status (as of June 2012)|
|Federal subject||Vologda Oblast1|
|Administrative center||town of Vytegra2|
|Towns of district significance||1|
|Municipal status (as of May 2010)|
|Municipally incorporated as||Vytegorsky Municipal District3|
|Area||13,100 km2 (5,100 sq mi)4|
|Population (2010 Census)||27,139 inhabitants5|
|Density||2.07 /km2 (5.4 /sq mi)6|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)7|
|Established||August 1, 19278|
|Vytegorsky District on WikiCommons|
Vytegorsky District (Russian: Вытего́рский райо́н) is an administrative1 and municipal3 district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Pudozhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Kargopolsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in the east, Kirillovsky, Vashkinsky, and Belozersky Districts in the southeast, Vologodsky District in the southeast, Babayevsky District in the southwest, and with Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast in the west. The area of the district is 13,100 square kilometers (5,100 sq mi),4 making it the largest district in Vologda Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Vytegra.2 Population: 27,139 (2010 Census);5 31,757 (2002 Census);9 37,792 (1989 Census).10 The population of Vytegra accounts for 38.6% of the district's total population.5
The northwestern border of the district is the shore of Lake Onega, and the area of the district is divided between several drainage basins. The western and the central parts belong to the basins of the rivers flowing into Lake Onega, most notably the Vytegra, the Vodla, the Andoma, and the Megra. Lake Onega belongs to the basin of the Neva River. From the east, the Andoma Hills separate the basin of Lake Onega from the basins of the Kovzha and the Kema Rivers, which are the tributaries of Lake Beloye and thus belong to the basin of the Volga. Minor areas in the northeast of the district are in the basin of Lake Lacha, itself in the basin of the Onega River. In the northeast of the district there is a point which is a triple divide of the basins of the Neva, the Volga, and the Onega, and thus the basins of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the endorheic basins of the interior of Eurasia. This is one of the very few such triple divides in the world and the only one in Russia.
There are many lakes in the district, many of which are of glacial origin. The biggest lakes are Lake Kovzhskoye, Lake Kemskoye, Lake Soydozero, and Lake Kushtozero in the basin of Lake Beloye, and Lake Megrskoye, Lake Tudozero, Lake Lukhtozero, and Lake Shimozero in the basin of Lake Onega.
Most of the area of the district is covered by coniferous forests (taiga). There are many swamps, especially in the southwest and the east of the district.
The area was originally populated by the Finno-Ugric peoples and then colonized by the Novgorod Republic. Vytegra was first mentioned in 1496. It was located on the trade route from the Volga River to Lake Onega, and later on the route from Saint Petersburg to Arkhangelsk.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known from 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, it was transferred to the newly established Novgorod Governorate. In 1773, Vytegra was chartered, and in 1776, Vytegorsky Uyezd was established as one of the uyezds of newly established Novgorod Viceroyalty. It became a part of Olonets Oblast.
A sequence of administrative reforms followed. In 1781, Olonets Oblast was transferred to Saint Petersburg Governorate, and in 1784, it was transformed into an independent administrative unit, Olonets Viceroyalty. In 1785, Vytegorsky Uyezd was abolished and merged into Pudozhsky Uyezd. In 1799, Olonets Viceroyalty was abolished and divided between Novgorod and Arkhangelsk Governorates. Vytegorsky Uyezd was returned to Novgorod Governorate. In 1801, Olonets Governorate was established, and Vytegorsky Uyezd became one of several uyezds of the governorate.
In 1922, Olonets Governorate was abolished, and Vytegorsky Uyezd was transferred to Petrograd Governorate (later Leningrad Oblast), with the exception of three volosts, which were transferred to Kargopolsky Uyezd of Vologda Governorate. On February 7, 1927, Vytegorsky Uyezd was abolished and merged into Lodeynopolsky Uyezd of Leningrad Oblast.11
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds in Leningrad Oblast were abolished. On the territory of former Vytegorsky Uyezd four districts were established: Vytegorsky District (with the administrative center in Vytegra), Andomsky District (with the administrative center in the selo of Andomsky Pogost12), Kovzhinsky District (with the administrative center in the selo of Annensky Most13), and Oshtinsky District (with the administrative center in the selo of Oshta14). The four districts were a part of Lodeynoye Pole Okrug of Leningrad Oblast.8 On September 23, 1937, all four districts were transferred to newly established Vologda Oblast.8
During World War II, parts of Oshtinsky District were the only areas of Vologda Oblast to be occupied by Finnish troops. The Finnish advance was stopped in October 1941, but the occupation continued until June 1944, when the Soviet Army started to advance.
Andomsky, Oshtinsky, and Kovzhinsky Districts were all abolished in the 1950s. On December 12, 1955, Oshtinsky District was divided between Vytegorsky and Borisovo-Sudsky Districts. On October 17, 1957, Andomsky District was merged into Vytegorsky District. In 1959, Kovzhinsky District was split between Vashkinsky and Vytegorsky Districts.8
The economy of the district is based on timber industry. There are also food industry enterprises.16 In 1975, limestone production started in the selo of Annensky Most. The enterprise, Bely Ruchey Ore Administration, is owned by the Severstal steel plant, located in Cherepovets, and extracted limestone was used for steel production.17
The agriculture in the district specializes in meat and milk production and has been steadily declining since the 1990s.16
Vytegra is a road junction where a partially paved road connecting to Podporozhye in Leningrad Oblast branches off from the highway connecting Vologda with Medvezhyegorsk in the Republic of Karelia via Lipin Bor and Pudozh. There is bus traffic.
The Volga–Baltic Waterway, connecting the basins of the Volga and the Neva Rivers, crosses the district from south to north, following the valley of the Kovzha River in the south, the Novomariinsky Canal, and the Vytegra River in the north. It also bypasses Lake Onega along the Onega Canal. There is regular cruise and cargo traffic along the waterway. The passenger navigation on Lake Onega, connecting Vytegra with Petrozavodsk, has been discontinued.
The Vytegra Airport in 2011 was not served by regular passenger flights.
The district contains 8 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage by Russian Federal law, and additionally 170 objects (66 of them located in Vytegra) classified as cultural and historical heritage of local importance.18 The cultural heritage monuments of federal significance are the remains of the Mariinsky Waterway from the early 19th century, the wooden Epiphany Church in Paltoga, the wooden St. Iliya Church of Saminsky Pogost, and the wooden Assumption Church in Devyatiny.
- Law #371-OZ
- Resolution #178
- Law #1113-OZ
- "География края" (in Russian). Администрация Вытегорского муниципального района. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- "Справка об изменениях административно-территориального устройства и сети партийных и комсомольских органов на территории Вологодской области (1917-1991)" (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Лодейнопольский уезд Олонецкой губ." (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Андомский район (авг. 1927 – сент. 1937)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Ковжинский район (авг. 1927 – сент. 1937)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- "Оштинский район (авг. 1927 – сент. 1937)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- Hermann, Luc (April 15, 2011). "L’extinction d’un peuple finno-ougrien: les Vepses". Regard sur l'Est (in French).
- "Экономика" (in Russian). Администрация Вытегорского муниципального района. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- Мартьянова, Ирина Ивановна. "Социальная ситуация в поселении Анненский мост" (in Russian). Российский государственный гуманитарный университет. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- "Вытегорский районный краеведческий музей" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №371-ОЗ от 4 июня 1999 г. «О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области», в ред. Закона №2916-ОЗ от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон области "О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №124–125, 29 июля 1999 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #371-OZ of June 4, 1999 On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Law #2916-OZ of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Правительство Вологодской области. Постановление №178 от 1 марта 2010 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Вологодской области», в ред. Постановления №686 от 25 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Постановления Правительства области». Вступил в силу 20 марта 2010 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №29, 20 марта 2010 г. (Government of Vologda Oblast. Resolution #178 of March 1, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #686 of June 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Oblast Government. Effective as of March 20, 2010.).
- Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №1113-ОЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ Вытегорского муниципального района, границах и статусе муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №2809-ОЗ от 5 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы области, устанавливающие границы и статус муниципальных образований области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №242, 11 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #1113-OZ of December 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of Vytegorsky Municipal District, on the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #2809-OZ of July 5, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Oblast, Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).