|— Province —|
|Motto: Akçaya (Sanskrit)
|• Governor||Drs. Cornelis M.H|
|• Total||147,307 km2 (56,876 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)1|
|• Density||30/km2 ( 77/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups||Dayak (33.75%), Malay (33.75%), Chinese (10.01%), Javanese (9.41%), Madurese (5.51%), Bugis (3.29%), Sundanese (1.21%), Malay Banjarese (0.66%), Batak (0.56%), Others (1.85%)2|
|• Religion||Islam (59.22%), Roman Catholicism (22.94%), Protestantism (11.38%), Buddhism (5.41%), Confucianism (0.68%), Hinduism (0.06%)|
|• Languages||Indonesian (official), Malay, Dayak, Chinese dialects of Hakka and Teochew|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat') is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak.
The province has an area of 147,307 km² with a recorded 2010 census population of 4,393,239.1 Major ethnic groups include the Dayak, Malay, Chinese, which make up about 90% of the total population.citation needed Other groups include the Javanese, Bugis, and Madurese.citation needed
The borders of West Kalimantan roughly trace the mountain ranges surrounding the watershed of the Kapuas River, which drains most of the province.
The history of West Kalimantan can be dated back to 17th century. Dayaks were the main inhabitants of the province before 17th century. The Malay migrated to West Kalimantan and built their own sultanates. The high Chinese population in this province was due to a republic founded by Chinese miners called Lanfang Republic after they defeated the local Malay sultans. The government of Lanfang Republic was ended in West Kalimantan after the Dutch occupation in 1884.citation needed
West Kalimantan was under Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945, when Indonesia declared its Independence. During the Japanese occupation, more than 21,000 people in Pontianak (including sultans, nobleman, women and children) were kidnapped, tortured and massacred by Japanese troops. Japanese intelligence had become concerned that the ethnic Chinese were planning to start a rebellion, and were worried that people in the city had received guns and ammunition from the Chinese government.citation needed
The massacre occurred from April 23, 1943 to June 28, 1944 and most of the victims were buried in several giant wells in Mandor (88 km from Pontianak). Allied forces occupying the area after the war found several thousand bones, and more than 60 years after the massacre, several secret graves of the victims were found in Mandor and the surrounding areas.citation needed
After the end of war, the Japanese officers in Pontianak were arrested by allied troops and brought in front of an international military tribune. During the trial, it was revealed that the plan to start the rebellion did not exist and instead was only an imaginary plan created by Japanese officers who wanted to get promoted.citation needed
A monument called Makam Juang Mandor was created to commemorate this tragic event.
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010|
West Kalimantan was the site of substantial fighting during the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation under the Sukarno government in the mid-1960s. After Suharto deposed Sukarno in 1965, the confrontation was quickly resolved. Domestic conflict continued, however, for another ten years between the new military Suharto government and fighters organized during the confrontation and backed by the banned Indonesian Communist Party (PKI).(see Indonesian killings of 1965–66)
During the 1930s the Dutch colonial powers initiated a "transmigration plan" to move people from heavily populated islands such as Java, to the less populated islands of Irian Jaya and Kalimantan. In the 1960s the Indonesian government granted the Madurese rights to clear lands from forest for palm oil cultivation. This conflicted with the local Dayak tribes’ traditional way of life. The tensions between the two ethnic groups resulted in major eruptions of violence in 1996, 1999 and 2001, resulting in about 500 deaths.345
West Kalimantan is subdivided into two cities (kota) and twelve regencies (kabupaten). The cities are Pontianak and Singkawang; the regencies are Sambas, Bengkayang, Pontianak, Ketapang, Landak, Sanggau, Sekadau, Sintang, Melawi, Kapuas Hulu, and the most recent regencies Kayong Utara and Kubu Raya. About 29 percent of the province's population lives in the Pontianak area. The capitals and populations of the regencies and cities are:
|Name||Capital||Area in km2||Population
2010 Census 1
|Kapuas Hulu Regency||Putussibau||182,589||203,983||221,952|
|Melawi Regency||Nanga Pinoh||(included)||160,746||179,586|
|North Kayong Regency
|Kubu Raya Regency||Sungai Raya||(included)||(included)||498,333|
- the use of "included" signifies that the regency was formed after 2000, and its population in 2000 (or in 2000 and 2003) has been included with that of the older regency from which it was taken.
- above excludes a Special Enclave (Daerah Kantong), with 5,469 population in 2010.
There are three National Parks in the province: Danau Sentarum, Gunung Palung and Betung Kerihun. Currently, illegal logging for trees such as dipterocarp and plantations of palm oil and pulpwood threaten many rare species in the province due to the effects of habitat destruction.6 Peat bog fires and droughts or flooding during ENSO episodes also threaten the area and are worsened by ongoing deforestation.
Dr. Hotlin Ompusunggu has received the 2011 Whitley Award for her conservation work in West Kalimantan. She has been fighting against illegal logging by trade off with low-cost quality dental and medical treatment to 60,000 villagers on condition they involve in reforestation and conservation work.7
- Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (Indonesian)
- Overcoming Violent Conflict: Volume 1, Peace and Development Analysis in West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and Madura.. Prevention and Recovery Unit – United Nations Development Programme, LabSosio and BAPPENAS. 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- Armed Conflicts Report.Indonesia - Kalimantan
- THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DAYAK AND MADURA IN RETOK by Yohanes Supriyadi
- McVeigh, Tracy (January 28, 2011). "Greed and demand doom rainforest". Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- J. Braithwaite, V. Braithwaite, M. Cookson & L. Dunn, Anomie and Violence: Non-truth and Reconciliation in Indonesian Peacebuilding (ANU E-Press: 2010) 
- Davidson, Jamie S. and Douglas Kammen (2002). Indonesia's unknown war and the lineages of violence in West Kalimantan. Indonesia 73:53.
- Yuan, Bing Ling (1999). Chinese Democracies - A Study of the Kongsis of West Borneo (1776–1884).
- WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative - Information about the Heart of Borneo - 220,000 km² of upland montane tropical rainforest, where endangered species such as the orang-utan, rhinoceros and pygmy elephant cling for survival.
- A Study of the Kongsis of West Borneo.