Help:IPA for Italian
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See Italian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Italian.
- If the consonants are doubled between vowels, they are geminated. This can also happen between sonorants (genuinely, all consonants can be geminated except for z). In IPA, gemination can be represented either by doubling the consonant: fatto [ˈfatto], mezzo [ˈmɛddzo]; or with the length marker ‹ ː ›. Notice as well, syntactic gemination can occur in Italian (e.g. va via [vavˈvi.a]).
- /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated word-internally.
- The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/, /nk/ is a velar ŋ, the realization before /v/ or /f/ is a labiodental ɱ (though this is transcribed here as m), and only m is ever found before /p/ or /b/.
- Italian contrasts seven stressed monophthongs. In unstressed syllables, mid vowels occur in complementary distribution; with open-mid vowels e o appearing before sonorants (e.g. copertura [koperˈtura]), and close-mid vowels ɛ ɔ found elsewhere (e.g. posso [ˈpɔsso]). Open and close vowels a i u stay unchanged in unstressed syllables, though utterance-final unstress [i] may become an approximant j before vowels in a process known as synalepha (syllable merging), e.g. pari età [ˌparjeˈta].
- In addition to the pure vowels, there are diphthongs ending in i and u:
- [ai] as in baita ('mountain hut')
- [ei] as in potei ('could 1.sg.')
- [ɛi] as in sei ('six')
- [oi] as in voi ('you pl.')
- [ɔi] as in poi ('later')
- [ui] as in lui ('he')
- [au] as in auto ('car')
- [eu] as in pleurite ('pleuritis')
- [ɛu] as in neutro ('neuter')
- Stressed vowels are long when in a non-final open syllable: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].