Help:IPA for Persian
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See Persian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Persian.
- Persian consonants can be geminated, especially in words from Arabic. This is represented in IPA by doubling the consonant: [sejjed].
- Also an allophone of /p/ before voiced consonants.
- Also an allophone of /k/ before voiced consonants.
- Also an allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.
- غ and ق denoted the original Arabic phonemes in Classical Persian, the voiced velar fricative ɣ and the voiceless uvular stop [q] (pronounced in Persian as voiced uvular stop ɢ), respectively. In modern Tehrani Persian (both colloquial and standard dialects), the phonemes of غ and ق are allophones; when /ɣ/ (spelled either غ or ق) occurs at the beginning and the end of a word, post-consonantal position, and syllable-final position, it is realized as a voiced uvular plosive ɢ, when /ɢ/ (also spelled either غ or ق) occurs intervocalically, it is realized as a voiced velar fricative ɣ; the allophone is probably influenced by Turkic languages like Azeri and Turkmen. The sounds remain distinct in Persian dialects of southern Iran and Eastern Persian dialects (Dari and Tajik).
- The unvoiced stops /p, t, tʃ, k/ are aspirated much like their English counterparts: they become aspirated when they begin a syllable, though aspiration is not contrastive.
- Also an allophone of /n/ before bilabial consonants.
- A trilled allophone r occurs word-initially (Spanish/Italian/Russian R); trill r as a separate phoneme occurs word-medially especially in loanwords of Arabic origin as a result of gemination of [ɾ].
- While و is pronounced [v] in Iranian Persian, it is pronounced as w in Dari.
- [v] is also an allophone of [f] before voiced consonants.
- Also an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
- Also an allophone of /ʃ/ before voiced consonants.
- Velar nasal [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before [g], [k], [ɣ], [ɢ], and [x] in native vocabulary.
- Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words. For the various exception and other clarifications, see Persian phonology#Stress
- In the modern Persian script, the "short" vowels /æ/, /e/, /o/ are usually not written as is done in the Arabic alphabet; only the long vowels /ɒː/, /iː/, /uː/ are represented in the text. This, of course, creates certain ambiguities.
- [e] is also an allophone of /æ/ in word-final position in contemporary Iranian Persian.
- The Persian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of bate (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bet; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- The Persian /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of boat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- /ou/ becomes [o] in colloquial Tehrani dialect but is preserved in other Western dialects and standard Western Persian.