Help:IPA for Russian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Russian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Russian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Russian.

IPA Examples IPA Examples1 English approximation
Consonants
b бок; небо беглый; воробей boot; beautiful
d дом; деда делает; Владимир do; adieu
f фата; выставка;2 Чехов;3 шурф фея; червь3 fool; few
ɡ говорю; другой ɡʲ гербарий; ноги goo; argue
ɣ Господи;4 interj. ага, ого4
j есть; юла; я; толстый5 yes, boy
k кость; книга; рука; бок кишки; короткий cool; cute
l луна; стула ; ствол6 лес; колено; мысль pill; least
m мыло; думать; там мясо; доме moot; mute
n нос; он нёс; они; корень noon; newt (for some dialects)
p пыль; тропа; скрип; зуб3 пепел; зыбь3 pool; pew
r рыба; широкий; орла; жир река; четыре; три; зверь trilled r, like in Spanish
s собака; писать; нос; глаз3 синий; здесь; есть; грызть2 soup; assume (for some dialects)
ʂ широкий; наш; хороший; муж;3 что ɕː щегол; считать; мужчина; вращать7 shop; fish show, fresh cheese
t тот; читаю; водка;2 лёд3 тереть; дитя; грудь3 tool; tune (for some dialects)
t͡s цель; птица; отец t͡ɕ чай; печень; течь tsunami, cats; chip
v ваш; давать; его8 вести; человек voodoo; view
x ходить; ухо; Бог4 хина; лёгкий24 bach; huge (for some dialects).
z заезжать; язык зелёный; озеро; просьба;2 zoo; azure (for some dialects)
ʐ жест; тяжёлый ʑː дрожжи; заезжать9 rouge; asia
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed vowels
a трава́ father
æ пять pat
ɑ па́лка10 palm
e пень (after palatalized consonants) pay
ɛ жест; э́то met
i си́него meet
ɨ ты; ши́шка roses (for some dialects)
o о́блако chore
ɵ тётя audio
u пу́ля pool
ʉ чуть; ю́жный choose
Unstressed vowels
ɐ паро́м; сообража́ть; тропа́ bud
ə ко́жа; ше́я; о́блако about
ɪ тяжёлый; эта́п; четы́ре bit
ɨ дыша́ть; жена́; го́ды dinner
ʉ юти́ться youth
ʊ мужчи́на put
Other symbols used in transcription of Russian pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable),
for example этап [ɪˈtap]

Notes

  1. ^ Russian makes contrasts between palatalized ("soft") and unpalatalized ("hard") consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript j, ‹ ʲ› , are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the y sound in yes. /j/, /ɕː/, /tɕ/, /ʑː/ are also considered "soft".
  2. ^ a b c d e In consonant clusters, the voicing or devoicing is determined by that of the final obstruent in the sequence (Halle 1959:31)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Voiced obstruents (/b/, /bʲ/, /d/, /dʲ/ /ɡ/, /v/, /vʲ/, /z/, /zʲ/, /ʐ/, and /ʑː/) are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
  4. ^ a b c d In some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as "Господи!", "Бог", as well as interjections, ‹г› is more often pronounced [ɣ] and [x]. When /ɡ/ loses its voicing, it is also lenited (a form of dissimilation) before plosives in the word roots -мягк-/-мягч-, -легк-/-легч-, -тягч-, and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -ногт-, -когт-, кто.
  5. ^ The "soft" vowel letters <е> <ю> and <я> represent a /j/ plus a vowel when initial or following other vowels or a yer. When such vowels are unstressed, the /j/ may be deleted.
  6. ^ /l/ is often strongly pharyngealized ɫ but this feature is nondistinctive (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:187-188).
  7. ^ While many speakers pronounce words with ‹щ› as [ɕɕ] and others as [ɕtɕ], none contrast the two pronunciations. This generally includes words spelled with other letters, though speakers with the [ɕɕ] pronunciation may still pronounce words like считывать with [ɕtɕ] because of the morpheme boundary between ‹с› and ‹ч›.
  8. ^ Intervocalic <г> can represent /v/ in certain words and affixes
  9. ^ In many dialects, the phoneme /ʑː/ is replaced with /ʐ/.
  10. ^ [ɑ] appears between a hard consonant (or a pause) and /l/

References








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