Other symbols used in transcription of Russian pronunciation
Stress (placed before the stressed syllable),
for example этап [ɪˈtap]
^Russian makes contrasts between palatalized ("soft") and unpalatalized ("hard") consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript j, ‹ ʲ› , are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the y sound in yes. /j/, /ɕː/, /tɕ/, /ʑː/ are also considered "soft".
^ abcdeIn consonant clusters, the voicing or devoicing is determined by that of the final obstruent in the sequence (Halle 1959:31)
^ abcdefghVoiced obstruents (/b/, /bʲ/, /d/, /dʲ/ /ɡ/, /v/, /vʲ/, /z/, /zʲ/, /ʐ/, and /ʑː/) are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
^ abcdIn some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as "Господи!", "Бог", as well as interjections, ‹г› is more often pronounced [ɣ] and [x]. When /ɡ/ loses its voicing, it is also lenited (a form of dissimilation) before plosives in the word roots -мягк-/-мягч-, -легк-/-легч-, -тягч-, and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -ногт-, -когт-, кто.
^The "soft" vowel letters <е> <ю> and <я> represent a /j/ plus a vowel when initial or following other vowels or a yer. When such vowels are unstressed, the /j/ may be deleted.
^While many speakers pronounce words with ‹щ› as [ɕɕ] and others as [ɕtɕ], none contrast the two pronunciations. This generally includes words spelled with other letters, though speakers with the [ɕɕ] pronunciation may still pronounce words like считывать with [ɕtɕ] because of the morpheme boundary between ‹с› and ‹ч›.
^Intervocalic <г> can represent /v/ in certain words and affixes
^In many dialects, the phoneme /ʑː/ is replaced with /ʐ/.
^[ɑ] appears between a hard consonant (or a pause) and /l/