Help:IPA for Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Oghuz Turcomanic substratum of Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See the respective coverage of phonology of Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen for more thorough discussion of the sounds of these languages.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Turkey Azerbaijan Turkmenistan
b b about
d d ado
d͡ʒ c (Turkish/Azeri), j (Turkmen) dodge
f ɸ f food; food but made only with lips
ɡ g (Turkish/Turkmen), q (Azeri) 1 ago
ɟ g1 between jump and gear
ɣ ʁ ğ (Turkish/Azeri)2, g (Turkmen) 2
j
β
h 3 h home
j y (Turkish/Azeri), ý (Turkmen) yet
k q k skill; (Turkmen) k in the throat
c 4 k k1 ski
l l lâle 'tulip'1 leaf
ɫ lala 'tutor'1 peel ("dark L")
m m much
n n not
ŋ ň (Turkmen) wing
p p span
ɾ r (US) pretty; Scottish r
s θ s sue; think
ʃ ş shoe
t t table
t͡ʃ ç catch
v 5 β v (Turkish/Azeri), w (Turkmen) vase, how5; as Spanish lava
x x (Azeri), h (Turkmen)4 Bach
z ð z zone; then
ʒ j (Turkish/Azeri), ž (Turkmen) beige
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a dal 'branch' father
ɑ Azərbaycan (Azeri) bra
æ Azərbaycan (Azeri) şäher 'city, town' (Turkmen)
meltem 'breeze' (Turkish)
cat
e gelin 'bride' bed
i dil 'tongue' deal
o yol 'way' somewhat like core
ø gör 'to see' somewhat like Received Pronunciation bird
u uçak 'airplane' put
ɯ ılık (Turkish/Azeri) 'mild' ylyk (Turkmen) somewhat like roses
y güneş 'sun' somewhat like cue


Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı /torbaˈlɯ/ 'with bag'
Torbalı /ˈtorbalɯ/ (a place name)

6

ː â, î, û, ğ2 âlem /aːlem/ 'world'

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e c~k (Turkish/Azeri) / k~q (Turkmen), ɟ~ɡ(Turkish) / ɡ~ʁ (Turkmen), l~ɫ only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/), while [k/q, ɡ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  2. ^ a b c In Turkish, between unrounded front vowels (/e/, /i/), ğ is similar to English y. Between unrounded back vowels (/a/, /ɯ/), it is silent. Between rounded vowels (/o/, /ø/, /u/, /y/) it is either silent or may have a very light β sound. Word-finally or before a consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.,
  3. ^ In Turkmen, h occurs before front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/) while x occurs before back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  4. ^ a b In many eastern Turkish/Azeri dialects, c at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become ç as in huge.
  5. ^ a b /v/ may be w after a vowel or in some loanwords.
  6. ^ In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable, and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
    Note that in Wikipedia articles, the stress is often wrongly assigned to the final syllable even in proper nouns.







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