|United States Senator
March 4, 1907 – January 19, 1940
|Preceded by||Fred Dubois|
|Succeeded by||John W. Thomas|
|Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations|
|Preceded by||Henry Cabot Lodge|
|Succeeded by||Key Pittman|
|Dean of the United States Senate|
March 4, 1933 – January 19, 1940
|Preceded by||Reed Smoot|
|Succeeded by||Ellison D. Smith|
|Born||William Edgar Borah
June 29, 1865
near Fairfield, Illinois
|Died||January 19, 1940
|Alma mater||University of Kansas|
|Nickname(s)||The Lion of Idaho1
The Big Potato2
William Edgar Borah (June 29, 1865 – January 19, 1940) was a prominent Republican attorney and longtime United States Senator from Idaho, noted for his oratorical skills and isolationist views. Progressive, independent, and often outspoken, he was internationally known as "The Lion of Idaho."1
Borah was born near Fairfield, Illinois, the son of Elizabeth (West) and William Nathan Borah. Borah's schooling included the Wayne County common schools and the Southern Illinois Academy at Enfield. According to a drawing published by H. T. Webster in 1916, he had a boyhood ambition to be a railway conductor.3 He attended University of Kansas in 1885 but was forced to leave after contracting tuberculosis his freshman year. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in September 1887.
After practicing law in Lyons, Kansas, Borah headed for Seattle in 1890, but only had fare at the time to get to Idaho, with plans to work and move on.2 He decided to stay in the growing capital city of Boise, where he became the most prominent attorney in the new state. Borah once wrote a letter to the Board of Pardons protesting the change of sentence in hanging "Diamondfield Jack" Davis, a man charged with killing a sheepherder who was working for a cattle company.4
Borah ran for the U.S. Senate in 1902, but was defeated in the Idaho Legislature by Weldon B. Heyburn, a Republican attorney from Wallace. In 1907, shortly after being elected to the Senate, Borah served as the prosecuting attorney in the nationally publicized trial of "Big Bill" Haywood and two other labor union officials for the 1905 murder of former Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg. Clarence Darrow defended Haywood.
In 1907, a federal grand jury indicted him for conspiracy to defraud the U.S. by procuring timberlands through fraudulent means. At the time he was the attorney for the Barber Lumber Company. The trial of the case was deferred until the conclusion of the Haywood case.
In 1895, Borah married Mary McConnell (1870–1976) of Moscow, Idaho, daughter of Governor William J. McConnell. They had no children, and she died at the age of 105 in Beaverton, Oregon.5 She is buried next to Borah at Morris Hill Cemetery in Boise.6
Later in life in Washington, Borah had a relationship with Alice Roosevelt Longworth, with whom he had one daughter, Paulina Longworth (1925–1957).7 And according to one family friend, "everybody called her love child Paulina 'Aurora Borah Alice.' " 8
On January 15, 1907, the Idaho Legislature elected William Borah to the U.S. Senate over the controversial Democratic incumbent, Fred Dubois. Borah was reelected by the Idaho Legislature in 1912, and four more times by popular vote (1918, 1924, 1930 and 1936) after the 17th Amendment changed the way senators were selected. He remains the longest-serving member of the United States Congress in Idaho history.citation needed
A member of the Republican National Committee from 1908 to 1912, Borah was a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention. As a senator, Borah was dedicated to principles rather than party loyalty, a trait which earned him the nickname "the Great Opposer." He disliked entangling alliances in foreign policy and became a prominent anti-imperialist and nationalist, favoring a continued separation of American liberal and European Great Power politics. He encouraged the formation of a series of world economic conferences and favored a low tariff.
In 1919 Borah and other Senate Republicans, notably Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and Hiram W. Johnson of California, clashed with President Woodrow Wilson over Senate ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. It ended World War I and established the League of Nations. Borah emerged as leader of the "Irreconcilables," a group of senators noted for their uncompromising opposition to the treaty and the League. During 1919, Borah and Johnson toured the country speaking against the treaty in response to Wilson's speaking tour supporting it. Borah's impassioned November 19, 1919, speech on the Senate floor in opposition to the treaty and League of Nations contributed to the Senate's ultimate rejection of it.9
In 1922 and 1923, Borah spoke against passage of the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, which had passed the House. A strong supporter of state sovereignty, he believed that its clause authorizing federal authorities to punish state officials for failure to suppress lynchings was unconstitutional. The bill was defeated by filibuster in the Senate by Southern Democrats. When another bill was introduced in 1935 and 1938, Borah continued to speak against it, by that time saying that it was no longer needed, as the number of lynchings had dropped sharply.10
From 1925 to 1933, Borah served as the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. As Chairman, he became known for his pro-Soviet views, favoring recognition of the Soviet Union, and sometimes interceded with that government in an unofficial capacity during the period when Moscow had no official relations with the United States. Purportedly, Kremlin officials held Borah in such high esteem that American citizens could gain permission to travel throughout the Soviet Union with nothing more than a letter from the Senator.11
Domestically, he sponsored bills that created the Department of Labor and the Children's Bureau. He was one of the Senators responsible for uncovering the scandals of the Harding Administration.citation needed In 1932, unhappy with the misguided policies of President Herbert Hoover, such as a doubling of revenues with no positive results, in light of the Great Depression Borah refused to publicly endorse Hoover's reelection campaign.
After Hoover's defeat by the Democratic candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt, Borah as the Dean of the United States Senate supported certain components of the New Deal. These included old-age pensions and the confiscation of U.S. citizens' gold by executive order, but he opposed the National Industrial Recovery Act and the Agricultural Adjustment Act.
Borah was a progressive Republican who often had strong differences of opinion with the conservative wing of the party. Borah also had a reputation for being headstrong and independent. When conservative President Calvin Coolidge was told of Borah's fondness for horseback riding, the president is said to have replied, "It's hard to imagine Senator Borah going in the same direction as his horse."2
Conservative Republicans in Idaho, notably Governor and later Senator Frank R. Gooding, often feuded with Borah as well. Nevertheless, Borah became a strong political force in Idaho and elsewhere, often in spite of opposition from his own party.
Wallace E. Olson, then president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in mocking the United States income tax system and rates reported on the debates held in Congress that,
A fear expressed by a number of opponents was that the proposed law, with its low rates was the camel's nose under the tent that once a tax on incomes was enacted, rates would tend to rise. Sen. William E. Borah of Idaho was outraged by such anxieties, and derided a suggestion that the rate might eventually climb as high as 20 percent. Who, he asked, could impose such socialistic, confiscatory rates? Only Congress. And how could Congress, the Representatives of the American People, be so lacking in fairness, justice and patriotism?.12
In 1931 Borah declared he was in favor of the revision of the Versailles Treaty and the Polish corridor, and the revision of the Treaty of Trianon that divided lands from the old Hungarian Kingdom between Austria, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia.13
In 1932 Borah strongly disagreed with the suggestion of the drafters of the London Economic Conference of 1933, who met in Geneva, that the United States should settle intergovernmental debts as a step to recover from the Great Depression.14
Borah became the dean of the U.S. Senate in 1933, an informal term used to refer to the Senator with the longest continuous service.
Borah positioned himself as the Republican expert on foreign affairs. When Hitler came to power in January 1933, he was not alarmed. He told the press the combination of President von Hindenburg and the Nazi leader should be able to administer the affairs of the German people.15
- "I think Hindenburg one of the greatest men, not alone of this time, but of all time,” he said. “I am impressed with the fact that Hitler speaks more and more with the voice of the German people, with reference to certain matters growing out of the World war and Versailles, which will have to be revised in the interest of peace."
In an attempt to revitalize the progressive wing of the Republican Party, in 1936 a 71-year-old Borah ran for nomination as candidate for President of the United States, becoming the first Idahoan to do so. Borah's candidacy was opposed by the conservative Republican leadership and dismissed by Roosevelt. He managed to win only a handful of delegates. Borah won a majority of delegates in only one state, Wisconsin, where he had the endorsement of Progressive United States Senator Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Borah refused to endorse the eventual Republican nominee, Alf Landon, leading some to believe he might cross party lines and support Roosevelt's reelection. Ultimately, as he had four years earlier, he chose to support neither candidate.16 Even more significantly, Borah announced:
Unless the Republican party is delivered from its reactionary leadership and reorganized in accord with its one-time liberal principles, it will die like the Whig party of sheer political cowardice...[The people] are offered the Constitution. But the people can't eat the Constitution.8
Despite his failed presidential run, throughout his long career Borah remained personally popular among Idaho voters. While in the Senate in Idaho he never faced a serious political challenge from either the Republicans or Democrats.citation needed After abandoning his presidential campaign, later in 1936 at the height of Democratic power during the New Deal era, Borah ran for reelection against three-term Idaho Governor C. Ben Ross, a Roosevelt ally, and won with well over 60 percent of the vote.
Known for his public integrity, eloquent speaking ability, and genuine concern for his constituents, his private affairs were less straightforward; his romantic relationship with the irascible and none-too-discreet Alice Roosevelt Longworth was unseemly, especially for the time, but it apparently did him no lasting political harm.17
Still in office, Borah died in his sleep at his home in Washington, D.C., on January 19, 1940 of a cerebral hemorrhage at age 74.1819 His state funeral at the U.S. Capitol was held in the Senate chamber on Monday, January 22.20 A second state funeral in Idaho was held three days later at the Idaho State Capitol in Boise, where Borah's casket lay in state beneath the rotunda for six hours prior to the funeral at three o'clock. An estimated 23,000 passed by the bier or attended the funeral service,21 nearly equal to Boise's population (26,130) in 1940. He is buried in Morris Hill Cemetery in Boise.22
In 1947, the state of Idaho donated a bronze statue of Borah to the National Statuary Hall Collection. Idaho's highest point, Borah Peak, at 12,662 feet (3,859 m) was named for him in 1934,23 six years before his death. Two public schools are named for him: Borah High School in Boise, and Borah Elementary School24 in Coeur d'Alene. At the University of Idaho in Moscow, his wife's hometown, an annual symposium on foreign affairs, a residence hall, and a theater in the student union building bear his name. Borah Avenue in Twin Falls is also named in his honor.
Borah may be best known today for having reportedly said, in September 1939, after Germany invaded Poland, "Lord, if I could only have talked to Hitler—all this might have been averted." The source of this quote was a 1940 Senate Document, News Articles on the Life and Works of Honorable William E. Borah, compiled and written by William Kinsey Hutchinson, then International News Service's Washington Bureau Chief. Hutchinson indicated that Borah said it to him in private "in words that ran like a prayer."27 There is no other public record of Borah saying this; Borah died before Hutchinson published the document, and thus could not deny or confirm it; its veracity is therefore unknown.
The quote has been repeatedly cited as evidence of the alleged naivete of a belief in the power of pure diplomacy. Conservative commentator Charles Krauthammer has referred to the quote in at least three of his columns, making an analogy to negotiating with China in 1989, with North Korea in 1994 and with Iran in 2006.28 In August 2006 United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld referred to the quote when decrying those who want to "negotiate a separate peace with terrorists".29
On May 15, 2008, U.S. President George W. Bush referred to the quote in a speech to the Knesset in Israel commemorating that nation's 60th anniversary, after stating, "some seem to believe that we should negotiate with the terrorists and radicals, as if some ingenious argument will persuade them they have been wrong all along."30 Some, including Barack Obama himself, interpreted Bush's comment to be a criticism of Obama, who was about to become the Democratic nominee for president, for his stated willingness to negotiate with the leaders of Iran. White House staff stated that the reference was meant more as a criticism of former president Jimmy Carter, who had argued that the U.S. should be willing to meet with Hamas.31
- "No more fatuous chimera has ever infested the brain than that you can control opinions by law or direct belief by statute, and no more pernicious sentiment ever tormented the heart than the barbarous desire to do so. The field of inquiry should remain open, and the right of debate must be regarded as a sacred right." —191732
- "America has arisen to a position where she is respected and admired by the entire world. She did it by minding her own business... the European and American systems do not agree." —1919 speech in Brooklyn opposing the League of Nations.33
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Idaho
March 4, 1907 – January 19, 1940
Served alongside: Weldon B. Heyburn, Kirtland I. Perky, James H. Brady, John F. Nugent, Frank R. Gooding, John W. Thomas, James P. Pope, D. Worth Clark
John W. Thomas
|Party political offices|
|Republican Party nominee, U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Idaho
1918 (won), 1924 (won), 1930 (won), 1936 (won)
John W. Thomas
Henry Cabot Lodge
|Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
|Dean of the United States Senate
March 4, 1933 – January 19, 1940
Ellison D. Smith
|Awards and achievements|
|Cover of Time Magazine
May 5, 1924
- "Idaho governor sets Borah day". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Associated Press. November 23, 1957. p. 7.
- Bates, Kirk (January 25, 1940). "The Senator who traveled alone". Milwaukee Journal. p. 22.
- "The Best of H. T. Webster" (Simon and Schuster, 1953), page 104
- Grover, David H. Diamondfield Jack; A Study in Frontier Justice (University of Nevada Press, 1968)
- "Mrs. Borah dies". Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. January 16, 1976. p. 7.
- "Mary Mamie McConnell Borah". Find a Grave.com. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Cordery, Stacy A. Alice: Alice Roosevelt Longworth, From White House Princess to Washington Power Broker. New York: Penguin Group, Viking Adult (2007). ISBN 0-670-01833-3 ISBN 978-0-670-01833-8
- Brands, H.W. (2008). Traitor to his Class. New York, NY: Doubleday. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-385-51958-8.
- Classic Senate Speeches: Notes on William E. Borah to The League of Nations on November 19, 1919. Retrieved May 15, 2008. Text of the speech also here.
- "Proceedings of the U.S. Senate on June 13, 2005 regarding the "Senate Apology" as Reported in the 'Congressional Record'", "Part 3, Mr. Craig", at African American Studies, University of Buffalo. Retrieved July 26, 2011
- "At The Hinge Of History: A Reporter's Story" Accounts of Joseph C. Harsch regarding certain issues. Retrieved March 6th, 2014.
- The Wall Street Journal. October 5, 1973. p. 8 col. 4-6.
- Show Stolen?, Time Magazine, November 2, 1931
- The World Economic Conference, Herbert Samuel, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1931-1939), Vol. 12, No. 4. (Jul. 1933) 445.
- Keesing's Contemporary Archives Volume I, (January, 1933) p 655
- A Lion Among The Liberals, by Kevin C. Murphy. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- McKenna, Marian, Borah, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1961.
- "Senator Borah dies; state funeral Monday". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. January 20, 1940. p. 1.
- Wilson, Lyle C. (January 20, 1940). "Borah is mourned by nation". Berkeley Daily Gazette. United Press International. p. 1.
- "Leaders grieve at state rites for Sen. Borah". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. January 23, 1940. p. 1.
- Bottcher, Walter R. (January 26, 1940). "Senator Borah rests in mountain's shadow". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. p. 1.
- Cemetery Walking Tour: William E. Borah, published by City of Boise. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- "Named for solon: Idaho's highest mountain be called "Borah Peak"". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. February 12, 1934. p. 1.
- "Borah Elementary School". Coeur d'Alene School District. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Cathy A. Alexander, Ralph Christian, and George R. Adams (January 1976), National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: William Edgar Borah Apartment, Number 21, Windsor Lodge / William Edgar Borah Apartment, Number 21, Chancellery Cooperative (PDF), National Park Service, retrieved June 22, 2009 and PDF (1.56 MB)
- Girard, Philip (2005), Bora Laskin: Bringing Law to Life, Toronto: Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History, ISBN 0-8020-9044-3
- William Kinsey Hutchinson, News Articles on the Life and Works of Honorable William E. Borah, Late a Senator from the State of Idaho, Senate Document 150 (Washington, D.C., 1940), p. 37.
- "Why the Nazi Analogy Is on the Rise", Brendan Nyhan, Time Magazine, August 31, 2006
- Address at the 88th Annual American Legion National Convention, Donald Rumsfeld, August 29, 2006
- John Yang (May 15, 2008). "Bush's 'Nazi' swipe at Obama". NBC.
- CNN, "The Situation Room," May 15, 2008 at 5 PM EDT.
- William E. Borah Quote/Quotation at quotes.liberty-tree.ca
- U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Classic Senate Speeches
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Edgar Borah.|
- BORAH, William Edgar at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- National Statutory Hall - U.S. Capitol
- Borah Foundation & Symposium - University of Idaho
- Morris Hill Cemetery Boise, ID - walking tour
- Find a Grave.com - William Edgar Borah
- Biography UMKC Law School - biography of William Borah
- Borah High School - biography of William E. Borah
- A Lion Among the Liberals: William Edgar Borah and the rise of New Deal Liberalism
- TIME magazine - cover - William Edgar Borah - March 30, 1936
- article - "Long ago and far away"