World Wide Web
The web's logo designed by Robert Cailliau
|Invented by||Tim Berners-Lee12|
The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3,3 commonly known as the web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
In March 1989 Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and former CERN employee,4 wrote a proposal for what would eventually become the World Wide Web.1 The 1989 proposal was meant for a more effective CERN communication system but Berners-Lee eventually realised the concept could be implemented throughout the world.5 Berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext "to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will",6 and Berners-Lee finished the first website in December of that year.7 Berners-Lee posted the project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup on 7 August 1991.8
- 1 History
- 2 Function
- 3 Web servers
- 4 Privacy
- 5 Intellectual property
- 6 Security
- 7 Standards
- 8 Accessibility
- 9 Internationalization
- 10 Statistics
- 11 Speed issues
- 12 Caching
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
In the May 1970 issue of Popular Science magazine, Arthur C. Clarke predicted that satellites would someday "bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to your fingertips" using a console that would combine the functionality of the photocopier, telephone, television and a small computer, allowing data transfer and video conferencing around the globe.9
With help from Robert Cailliau, he published a more formal proposal (on 12 November 1990) to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" (one word, also "W3") as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture.6 This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, [so that] authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available." While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, blogs, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom.11
The proposal was modeled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration.
A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and also to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web:12 the first web browser (which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and the first web pages,13 which described the project itself.
The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones (computer technologist) of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina revealed in May 2013 that he has a copy of a page given to him by Berners-Lee during a visit to UNC in 1991 which is the oldest known web page. Jones stored it on a magneto-optical drive and on his NeXT computer.14
On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup.15 This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet, although new users only access it after August 23. For this reason this is considered the internaut's day. Many newsmedia have reported that the first photo on the web was uploaded by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were "totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism."16
The first server outside Europe was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the SPIRES-HEP database. Accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event. The World Wide Web Consortium says December 1992,17 whereas SLAC itself claims 1991.1819 This is supported by a W3C document titled A Little History of the World Wide Web.20
The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University, Ted Nelson's Project Xanadu, and Douglas Engelbart's oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's microfilm-based "memex", which was described in the 1945 essay "As We May Think".21
Berners-Lee's breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. In his book Weaving The Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities, but when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:
- a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere, the universal document identifier (UDI), later known as uniform resource locator (URL) and uniform resource identifier (URI);
- the publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML);
- the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).22
The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due.23 Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for Unix and the X Windowing System.
Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction24 of the Mosaic web browser25 in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the U.S. High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, one of several computing developments initiated by U.S. Senator Al Gore.26 Prior to the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages and the web's popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet, such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). Mosaic's graphical user interface allowed the Web to become, by far, the most popular Internet protocol.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded at INRIA (a French national computer research lab) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental site was created in Japan at Keio University. By the end of 1994, while the total number of websites was still minute compared to present standards, quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiration for today's most popular services.
Connected by the existing Internet, other websites were created around the world, adding international standards for domain names and HTML. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed), and has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet.27 Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use, World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet.28 The web is a collection of documents and both client and server software using Internet protocols such as TCP/IP and HTTP.
Tim Berners-Lee was knighted in 2004 by Queen Elizabeth II for his contribution to the World Wide Web.
The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not the same. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the web is one of the services that runs on the Internet. It is a collection of text documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, usually accessed by web browsers from web servers. In short, the web can be thought of as an application "running" on the Internet.29
Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser then initiates a series of communication messages, behind the scenes, in order to fetch and display it. In the 1990s, using a browser to view web pages—and to move from one web page to another through hyperlinks—came to be known as 'browsing,' 'web surfing,' or 'navigating the web'. Early studies of this new behavior investigated user patterns in using web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory surfing, window surfing, evolved surfing, bounded navigation and targeted navigation.30
The following example demonstrates how a web browser works. Consider accessing a page with the URL http://example.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web.
First, the browser resolves the server-name portion of the URL (example.org) into an Internet Protocol address using the globally distributed database known as the Domain Name System (DNS); this lookup returns an IP address such as 184.108.40.206. The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request across the Internet to the computer at that particular address. It makes the request to a particular application port in the underlying Internet Protocol Suite so that the computer receiving the request can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols it may be servicing such as e-mail delivery; the HTTP protocol normally uses port 80. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as the two lines of text GET /wiki/World_Wide_Web HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org
The computer receiving the HTTP request delivers it to web server software listening for requests on port 80. If the web server can fulfill the request it sends an HTTP response back to the browser indicating success, which can be as simple as HTTP/1.0 200 OK Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 followed by the content of the requested page. The Hypertext Markup Language for a basic web page looks like <html> <head> <title>Example.org – The World Wide Web</title> </head> <body> <p>The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known ...</p> </body> </html>
The web browser parses the HTML, interpreting the markup (<title>, <p> for paragraph, and such) that surrounds the words in order to draw the text on the screen.
Many web pages use HTML to reference the URLs of other resources such as images, other embedded media, scripts that affect page behavior, and Cascading Style Sheets that affect page layout. The browser will make additional HTTP requests to the web server for these other Internet media types. As it receives their content from the web server, the browser progressively renders the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML and these additional resources.
Most web pages contain hyperlinks to other related pages and perhaps to downloadable files, source documents, definitions and other web resources. In the underlying HTML, a hyperlink looks like <a href="http://example.org/wiki/Main_Page">Example.org, a free encyclopedia</a>
Such a collection of useful, related resources, interconnected via hypertext links is dubbed a web of information. Publication on the Internet created what Tim Berners-Lee first called the WorldWideWeb (in its original CamelCase, which was subsequently discarded) in November 1990.6
Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links. The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive web sites. The Internet Archive, active since 1996, is the best known of such efforts.
Many hostnames used for the World Wide Web begin with www because of the long-standing practice of naming Internet hosts (servers) according to the services they provide. The hostname for a web server is often www, in the same way that it may be ftp for an FTP server, and news or nntp for a USENET news server. These host names appear as Domain Name System or (DNS) subdomain names, as in www.example.com. The use of 'www' as a subdomain name is not required by any technical or policy standard and many web sites do not use it; indeed, the first ever web server was called nxoc01.cern.ch.33 According to Paolo Palazzi,34 who worked at CERN along with Tim Berners-Lee, the popular use of 'www' subdomain was accidental; the World Wide Web project page was intended to be published at www.cern.ch while info.cern.ch was intended to be the CERN home page, however the dns records were never switched, and the practice of prepending 'www' to an institution's website domain name was subsequently copied. Many established websites still use 'www', or they invent other subdomain names such as 'www2', 'secure', etc.citation needed Many such web servers are set up so that both the domain root (e.g., example.com) and the www subdomain (e.g., www.example.com) refer to the same site; others require one form or the other, or they may map to different web sites.
The use of a subdomain name is useful for load balancing incoming web traffic by creating a CNAME record that points to a cluster of web servers. Since, currently, only a subdomain can be used in a CNAME, the same result cannot be achieved by using the bare domain root.citation needed
When a user submits an incomplete domain name to a web browser in its address bar input field, some web browsers automatically try adding the prefix "www" to the beginning of it and possibly ".com", ".org" and ".net" at the end, depending on what might be missing. For example, entering 'microsoft' may be transformed to http://www.microsoft.com/ and 'openoffice' to http://www.openoffice.org. This feature started appearing in early versions of Mozilla Firefox, when it still had the working title 'Firebird' in early 2003, from an earlier practice in browsers such as Lynx.35 It is reported that Microsoft was granted a US patent for the same idea in 2008, but only for mobile devices.36
In English, www is usually read as double-u double-u double-u.citation needed Some users pronounce it dub-dub-dub, particularly in New Zealand. Stephen Fry, in his "Podgrammes" series of podcasts, pronounces it wuh wuh wuh.citation needed The English writer Douglas Adams once quipped in The Independent on Sunday (1999): "The World Wide Web is the only thing I know of whose shortened form takes three times longer to say than what it's short for".citation needed In Mandarin Chinese, World Wide Web is commonly translated via a phono-semantic matching to wàn wéi wǎng (万维网), which satisfies www and literally means "myriad dimensional net",37 a translation that very appropriately reflects the design concept and proliferation of the World Wide Web. Tim Berners-Lee's web-space states that World Wide Web is officially spelled as three separate words, each capitalised, with no intervening hyphens.38
Use of the www prefix is declining as Web 2.0 web applications seek to brand their domain names and make them easily pronounceable.39 As the mobile web grows in popularity, services like Gmail.com, MySpace.com, Facebook.com and Twitter.com are most often discussed without adding www to the domain (or, indeed, the .com).
The scheme specifier http:// or https:// at the start of a web URI refers to Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP Secure respectively. Unlike www, which has no specific purpose, these specify the communication protocol to be used for the request and response. The HTTP protocol is fundamental to the operation of the World Wide Web and the added encryption layer in HTTPS is essential when confidential information such as passwords or banking information are to be exchanged over the public Internet. Web browsers usually prepend http:// to addresses too, if omitted.
The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to clients. This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document, such as images, style sheets and scripts.
Every time a web page is requested from a web server the server can identify, and usually it logs, the IP address from which the request arrived. Equally, unless set not to do so, most web browsers record the web pages that have been requested and viewed in a history feature, and usually cache much of the content locally. Unless HTTPS encryption is used, web requests and responses travel in plain text across the internet and they can be viewed, recorded and cached by intermediate systems.
When a web page asks for, and the user supplies, personally identifiable information such as their real name, address, e-mail address, etc., then a connection can be made between the current web traffic and that individual. If the website uses HTTP cookies, username and password authentication, or other tracking techniques, then it will be able to relate other web visits, before and after, to the identifiable information provided. In this way it is possible for a web-based organisation to develop and build a profile of the individual people who use its site or sites. It may be able to build a record for an individual that includes information about their leisure activities, their shopping interests, their profession, and other aspects of their demographic profile. These profiles are obviously of potential interest to marketeers, advertisers and others. Depending on the website's terms and conditions and the local laws that apply information from these profiles may be sold, shared, or passed to other organisations without the user being informed. For many ordinary people, this means little more than some unexpected e-mails in their in-box, or some uncannily relevant advertising on a future web page. For others, it can mean that time spent indulging an unusual interest can result in a deluge of further targeted marketing that may be unwelcome. Law enforcement, counter terrorism and espionage agencies can also identify, target and track individuals based on what appear to be their interests or proclivities on the web.
Social networking sites make a point of trying to get the user to truthfully expose their real names, interests and locations. This makes the social networking experience more realistic and therefore engaging for all their users. On the other hand, photographs uploaded and unguarded statements made will be identified to the individual, who may regret some decisions to publish these data. Employers, schools, parents and other relatives may be influenced by aspects of social networking profiles that the posting individual did not intend for these audiences. On-line bullies may make use of personal information to harass or stalk users. Modern social networking websites allow fine grained control of the privacy settings for each individual posting, but these can be complex and not easy to find or use, especially for beginners.40
Photographs and videos posted onto websites have caused particular problems, as they can add a person's face to an on-line profile. With modern and potential facial recognition technology, it may then be possible to relate that face with other, previously anonymous, images, events and scenarios that have been imaged elsewhere. Because of image caching, mirroring and copying, it is difficult to remove an image from the World Wide Web.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (January 2013)|
The intellectual property rights for any creative work initially rests with its creator. Web users who want to publish their work onto the World Wide Web, however, need to be aware of the details of the way they do it. If artwork, photographs, writings, poems, or technical innovations are published by their creator onto a privately owned web server, then they may choose the copyright and other conditions freely themselves. This is unusual though; more commonly work is uploaded to websites and servers that are owned by other organizations. It depends upon the terms and conditions of the site or service provider to what extent the original owner automatically signs over rights to their work by the choice of destination and by the act of uploading.citation needed
Some users of the web erroneously assume that everything they may find online is freely available to them as if it was in the public domain, which is not always the case. Content owners that are aware of this widespread belief, may expect that their published content will probably be used in some capacity somewhere without their permission. Some content publishers therefore embed digital watermarks in their media files, sometimes charging users to receive unmarked copies for legitimate use. Digital rights management includes forms of access control technology that further limit the use of digital content even after it has been bought or downloaded.citation needed
Proposed solutions vary to extremes. Large security vendors like McAfee already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations,50 and some, like Finjan have recommended active real-time inspection of code and all content regardless of its source.41 Some have argued that for enterprise to see security as a business opportunity rather than a cost center,51 "ubiquitous, always-on digital rights management" enforced in the infrastructure by a handful of organizations must replace the hundreds of companies that today secure data and networks.52 Jonathan Zittrain has said users sharing responsibility for computing safety is far preferable to locking down the Internet.53
Many formal standards and other technical specifications and software define the operation of different aspects of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and computer information exchange. Many of the documents are the work of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Berners-Lee, but some are produced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and other organizations.
Usually, when web standards are discussed, the following publications are seen as foundational:
- Recommendations for markup languages, especially HTML and XHTML, from the W3C. These define the structure and interpretation of hypertext documents.
- Recommendations for stylesheets, especially CSS, from the W3C.
- Recommendations for the Document Object Model, from W3C.
Additional publications provide definitions of other essential technologies for the World Wide Web, including, but not limited to, the following:
- Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is a universal system for referencing resources on the Internet, such as hypertext documents and images. URIs, often called URLs, are defined by the IETF's RFC 3986 / STD 66: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, as well as its predecessors and numerous URI scheme-defining RFCs;
- HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), especially as defined by RFC 2616: HTTP/1.1 and RFC 2617: HTTP Authentication, which specify how the browser and server authenticate each other.
There are methods available for accessing the web in alternative mediums and formats, so as to enable use by individuals with disabilities. These disabilities may be visual, auditory, physical, speech related, cognitive, neurological, or some combination therin. Accessibility features also help others with temporary disabilities like a broken arm or the aging population as their abilities change.54 The Web is used for receiving information as well as providing information and interacting with society. The World Wide Web Consortium claims it essential that the Web be accessible in order to provide equal access and equal opportunity to people with disabilities.55 Tim Berners-Lee once noted, "The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect."54 Many countries regulate web accessibility as a requirement for websites.56 International cooperation in the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative led to simple guidelines that web content authors as well as software developers can use to make the Web accessible to persons who may or may not be using assistive technology.5457
The W3C Internationalization Activity assures that web technology will work in all languages, scripts, and cultures.58 Beginning in 2004 or 2005, Unicode gained ground and eventually in December 2007 surpassed both ASCII and Western European as the Web's most frequently used character encoding.59 Originally RFC 3986 allowed resources to be identified by URI in a subset of US-ASCII. RFC 3987 allows more characters—any character in the Universal Character Set—and now a resource can be identified by IRI in any language.60
Between 2005 and 2010, the number of web users doubled, and was expected to surpass two billion in 2010.61 Early studies in 1998 and 1999 estimating the size of the web using capture/recapture methods showed that much of the web was not indexed by search engines and the web was much larger than expected.6263 According to a 2001 study, there were a massive number, over 550 billion, of documents on the Web, mostly in the invisible Web, or Deep Web.64 A 2002 survey of 2,024 million web pages65 determined that by far the most web content was in the English language: 56.4%; next were pages in German (7.7%), French (5.6%), and Japanese (4.9%). A more recent study, which used web searches in 75 different languages to sample the web, determined that there were over 11.5 billion web pages in the publicly indexable web as of the end of January 2005.66 As of March 2009[update], the indexable web contains at least 25.21 billion pages.67 On 25 July 2008, Google software engineers Jesse Alpert and Nissan Hajaj announced that Google Search had discovered one trillion unique URLs.68 As of May 2009[update], over 109.5 million domains operated.69not in citation given Of these 74% were commercial or other domains operating in the
.com generic top-level domain.69
Frustration over congestion issues in the Internet infrastructure and the high latency that results in slow browsing has led to a pejorative name for the World Wide Web: the World Wide Wait.70 Speeding up the Internet is an ongoing discussion over the use of peering and QoS technologies. Other solutions to reduce the congestion can be found at W3C.71 Guidelines for web response times are:72
- 0.1 second (one tenth of a second). Ideal response time. The user does not sense any interruption.
- 1 second. Highest acceptable response time. Download times above 1 second interrupt the user experience.
- 10 seconds. Unacceptable response time. The user experience is interrupted and the user is likely to leave the site or system.
There are other components of the Internet that can cache web content. Corporate and academic firewalls often cache Web resources requested by one user for the benefit of all. (See also caching proxy server.) Some search engines also store cached content from websites. Apart from the facilities built into web servers that can determine when files have been updated and so need to be re-sent, designers of dynamically generated web pages can control the HTTP headers sent back to requesting users, so that transient or sensitive pages are not cached. Internet banking and news sites frequently use this facility. Data requested with an HTTP 'GET' is likely to be cached if other conditions are met; data obtained in response to a 'POST' is assumed to depend on the data that was POSTed and so is not cached.
- Quittner, Joshua (29 March 1999). "Tim Berners Lee – Time 100 People of the Century". Time Magazine. Retrieved 17 May 2010. "He wove the World Wide Web and created a mass medium for the 21st century. The World Wide Web is Berners-Lee's alone. He designed it. He loosed it on the world. And he more than anyone else has fought to keep it open, nonproprietary and free."
- Tim Berners-Lee. "Frequently asked questions". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
- "World Wide Web Consortium". "The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)..."
- "Le Web a été inventé... en France!". Le Point. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a HyperText Project. W3.org (1990-11-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
- "Berners-Lee, Tim; Cailliau, Robert (12 November 1990). "WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a hypertexts Project". Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- Berners-Lee, Tim. "Pre-W3C Web and Internet Background". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
- "Aug. 7, 1991: Ladies and Gentlemen, the World Wide Web" Wired. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- von Braun, Wernher (May 1970). "TV Broadcast Satellite". Popular Science: 65–66. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- Berners-Lee, Tim (March 1989). "Information Management: A Proposal". W3C. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Tim Berners-Lee's original World Wide Web browser". "With recent phenomena like blogs and wikis, the web is beginning to develop the kind of collaborative nature that its inventor envisaged from the start."
- "Tim Berners-Lee: client". W3.org. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "First Web pages". W3.org. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- Murawski, John (24 May 2013). "Hunt for world's oldest WWW page leads to UNC Chapel Hill". News & Observer.
- "Short summary of the World Wide Web project". Google. 6 August 1991. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Silvano de Gennaro disclaims 'the first photo on the web'". Retrieved 27 July 2012. "If you read well our website, it says that it was, to our knowledge, the 'first photo of a band'. Dozens of media are totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism. Nobody knows which was the first photo on the web."
- "W3C timeline". Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "About SPIRES". Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "The Early World Wide Web at SLAC".
- "A Little History of the World Wide Web".
- Conklin, Jeff (1987), IEEE Computer 20 (9): 17–41
- "Inventor of the Week Archive: The World Wide Web". Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT School of Engineering. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
- "Ten Years Public Domain for the Original Web Software". Tenyears-www.web.cern.ch. 30 April 2003. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Mosaic Web Browser History – NCSA, Marc Andreessen, Eric Bina". Livinginternet.com. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "NCSA Mosaic – September 10, 1993 Demo". Totic.org. Retrieved 27 July 2009.dead link
- "Vice President Al Gore's ENIAC Anniversary Speech". Cs.washington.edu. 14 February 1996. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Internet legal definition of Internet". West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Free Online Law Dictionary. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
- "WWW (World Wide Web) Definition". TechTerms. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- "The W3C Technology Stack". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
- Muylle, Steve; Rudy Moenaert, Marc Despont (1999). "A grounded theory of World Wide Web search behaviour". Journal of Marketing Communications 5 (3): 143.
- Buntin, Seth (23 September 2008). "jQuery Polling plugin". Retrieved 2009-08-22.
- Berners-Lee, Tim. "Frequently asked questions by the Press". W3C. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- Palazzi, P (2011) 'The Early Days of the WWW at CERN'
- "automatically adding www.___.com". mozillaZine. 16 May 2003. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- Masnick, Mike (7 July 2008). "Microsoft Patents Adding 'www.' And '.com' To Text". Techdirt. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- "MDBG Chinese-English dictionary – Translate". Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Frequently asked questions by the Press – Tim BL". W3.org. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "It's not your grandfather's Internet". Strategic Finance. 2010.dead link redirects to search.com front page; not found in Internet Archive
- boyd, danah; Hargittai, Eszter (July 2010). "Facebook privacy settings: Who cares?". First Monday (University of Illinois at Chicago) 15 (8).
- Ben-Itzhak, Yuval (18 April 2008). "Infosecurity 2008 – New defence strategy in battle against e-crime". ComputerWeekly (Reed Business Information). Retrieved 20 April 2008.
- Christey, Steve and Martin, Robert A. (22 May 2007). "Vulnerability Type Distributions in CVE (version 1.1)". MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
- Symantec Internet Security Threat Report: Trends for July–December 2007 (Executive Summary) (PDF) XIII. Symantec Corp. April 2008. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
- "Google searches web's dark side". BBC News. 11 May 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
- "Security Threat Report" (PDF). Sophos. Q1 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
- "Security threat report" (PDF). Sophos. July 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
- Fogie, Seth, Jeremiah Grossman, Robert Hansen, and Anton Rager (2007). Cross Site Scripting Attacks: XSS Exploits and Defense (PDF). Syngress, Elsevier Science & Technology. pp. 68–69, 127. ISBN 1-59749-154-3. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- O'Reilly, Tim (30 September 2005). "What Is Web 2.0". O'Reilly Media. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 4 June 2008. and AJAX web applications can introduce security vulnerabilities like "client-side security controls, increased attack surfaces, and new possibilities for Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)", in Ritchie, Paul (March 2007). "The security risks of AJAX/web 2.0 applications" (PDF). Infosecurity (Elsevier). Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008. which cites Hayre, Jaswinder S. and Kelath, Jayasankar (22 June 2006). "Ajax Security Basics". SecurityFocus. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- Berinato, Scott (1 January 2007). "Software Vulnerability Disclosure: The Chilling Effect". CSO (CXO Media). p. 7. Archived from the original on 18 April 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
- Prince, Brian (9 April 2008). "McAfee Governance, Risk and Compliance Business Unit". eWEEK (Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings). Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- Preston, Rob (12 April 2008). "Down To Business: It's Past Time To Elevate The Infosec Conversation". InformationWeek (United Business Media). Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- Claburn, Thomas (6 February 2007). "RSA's Coviello Predicts Security Consolidation". InformationWeek (United Business Media). Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- Duffy Marsan, Carolyn (9 April 2008). "How the iPhone is killing the 'Net". Network World (IDG). Retrieved 17 April 2008.
- "Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 7 April 2009.dead link
- "Developing a Web Accessibility Business Case for Your Organization: Overview". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "Legal and Policy Factors in Developing a Web Accessibility Business Case for Your Organization". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "Internationalization (I18n) Activity". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- Davis, Mark (5 April 2008). "Moving to Unicode 5.1". Google. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- "World Wide Web Consortium Supports the IETF URI Standard and IRI Proposed Standard" (Press release). World Wide Web Consortium. 26 January 2005. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- Lynn, Jonathan (19 October 2010). "Internet users to exceed 2 billion ...". Reuters. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- S. Lawrence, C.L. Giles, "Searching the World Wide Web," Science, 280(5360), 98–100, 1998.
- S. Lawrence, C.L. Giles, "Accessibility of Information on the Web," Nature, 400, 107–109, 1999.
- "The 'Deep' Web: Surfacing Hidden Value". Brightplanet.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Distribution of languages on the Internet". Netz-tipp.de. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- Alessio Signorini. "Indexable Web Size". Cs.uiowa.edu. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "The size of the World Wide Web". Worldwidewebsize.com. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- Alpert, Jesse; Hajaj, Nissan (25 July 2008). "We knew the web was big...". The Official Google Blog.
- "Domain Counts & Internet Statistics". Name Intelligence. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- "World Wide Wait". TechEncyclopedia. United Business Media. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- Khare, Rohit and Jacobs, Ian (1999). "W3C Recommendations Reduce 'World Wide Wait'". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
- Nielsen, Jakob (from Miller 1968; Card et al. 1991) (1994). "5". Usability Engineering: Response Times: The Three Important Limits. Morgan Kaufmann. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to W3C.|
- Berners-Lee, Tim; Bray, Tim; Connolly, Dan; Cotton, Paul; Fielding, Roy; Jeckle, Mario; Lilley, Chris; Mendelsohn, Noah; Orchard, David; Walsh, Norman; Williams, Stuart (15 December 2004). Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One. Version 20041215. W3C.
- Fielding, R.; Gettys, J.; Mogul, J.; Frystyk, H.; Masinter, L.; Leach, P.; Berners-Lee, T. (June 1999). Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1. Request For Comments 2616. Information Sciences Institute.
- Niels Brügger, ed. Web History (2010) 362 pages; Historical perspective on the World Wide Web, including issues of culture, content, and preservation.
- Polo, Luciano (2003). "World Wide Web Technology Architecture: A Conceptual Analysis". New Devices.
- Skau, H.O. (March 1990). "The World Wide Web and Health Information". New Devices.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Nets, Webs and the Information Infrastructure|
- Early archive of the first Web site
- Internet Statistics: Growth and Usage of the Web and the Internet
- Living Internet A comprehensive history of the Internet, including the World Wide Web.
- Web Design and Development on the Open Directory Project
- World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
- W3C Recommendations Reduce "World Wide Wait"
- World Wide Web Size Daily estimated size of the World Wide Web.
- Antonio A. Casilli, Some Elements for a Sociology of Online Interactions
- The Erdős Webgraph Server offers weekly updated graph representation of a constantly increasing fraction of the WWW.